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Canadian Housing Observer 2014, Chapter 1: Housing Affordability and Need
Page 1
CANADIAN
HOUSING OBSERVER
2014
Housing Affordability and Need
A Chapter from the Canadian Housing Observer

Page 2
Cover Photo: Henri Masson, Perkins, Quebec, 1971, Oil on canvas, 32” x 46”, FAC 1020, Firestone Collection
of Canadian Art, The Ottawa Art Gallery; Donated to the City of Ottawa by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Photo Credit: Tim Wickens
© 2014 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form or by any means, mechanical, electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior
written permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Without limiting the generality of the
foregoing, no portion of this book may be translated from English into any other language without the prior
written permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.
Printed in Canada
Produced by CMHC

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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-1
CHAPTER ONE
This chapter examines trends in housing conditions
and core housing need from 2001 to 2011 based on data
from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and the
2001 and 2006 Censuses of Population, and on annual
data for urban households from 2002 to 2011 from
the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID)
(see Glossary, Supplemental information and analysis
in the Annex).1
In Canada, most households are able to satisfy their
housing requirements through the housing market.
However, there are some households whose housing needs
are not being met in the market place. Information on
housing conditions in Canada and the characteristics of
those with housing need is used by all levels of government
and the non-profit sector to inform their policies,
programs, plans and activities, in order to improve
housing outcomes for those in housing need.
In 2011, about 87.5% (10.9 million) of Canada’s
12.5 million households for which core housing need could
be assessed either lived in, or had sufficient income to
access, acceptable housing. This included the following:
About 8.6 million households (69.2%) living
in acceptable housing, compared to 7.6 million
or 69.9% in 2001; and
About 2.3 million households (18.4%) living in
housing below one or more housing standard(s)
but who could have afforded acceptable housing
in their local housing market, up from 1.8 million
or 16.3% in 2001.
1
Housing
Affordability
and Need
L.A.C. Panton, View from Window Central Technical School Toronto, 1925, Watercolour,
graphite and conté on wove paper, 10” x 13”, FAC 1055, Firestone Collection of Canadian Art,
The Ottawa Art Gallery; Donated to the City of Ottawa by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Photo Credit: Tim Wickens
1
The Census is conducted every five years. The National Household Survey was conducted for the first time in 2011. Data on urban households
from SLID are for households living in Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and only provincial Census Agglomerations (CAs).

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CHAPTER ONE
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
The principal drivers that influence
core housing need
The percentage of households living in core housing need
is affected by some key socio-economic drivers:
Demographic and social trends such as population
aging and divorce, which increase the percentage
of one-person and lone-parent households;
Household income, used to determine housing
affordability and core housing need, is influenced,
for example, by the level and type of education
and employment of the household members;
Shelter costs, also used for measuring affordability and
core housing need, differ by region, with some cities’
higher house prices and rents resulting in relatively
larger percentages of households in core housing need;
The size of households affects housing suitability and
core housing need through the number of bedrooms
required, as do the rents of dwellings with the required
number of bedrooms;
Investments in home repair and renovation, and in
new construction, can reduce the share of the housing
stock in need of major repair; and
Economic growth can increase incomes, housing
construction, and the number of acceptable housing
options. Also where income growth exceeds upward
pressures on shelter costs, economic growth can reduce
levels of core housing need. By contrast, where
employment growth outpaces new housing supply,
there can be upward pressure on house prices and
rents. Increases in unemployment during economic
downturns can also increase core housing need.
Canada’s economy for most of this period (the exception
was the 2008/2009 recession) was also comparatively
healthy; median household real (i.e. inflation-adjusted
to 2011 constant dollars) before-tax income grew from
$57,800 in 2001 to $60,900 in 2006 and $62,000 in
2011. At the same time, the national unemployment rate
fell from 7.2% in 2001 to 6.3% in 2006, then climbed
to 8.3% during the recession before falling back to 7.4%
in 2011 (see Figure 1-2).
About 1.6 million Canadian
households were in core housing
need in 2011
About 1.6 million Canadian households were in
core housing need in 2011, up from 1.5 million
in 2001. The incidence of core housing need in 2011
was 12.5%, down from 13.7% in 2001 (see Figure 1-1).
Most of this improvement occurred between 2001 and
2006 when the incidence of core housing need was 12.7%.
The change of methodology from a mandatory survey
in 2006 to a voluntary survey in 2011 introduces
some uncertainty as to what extent differences in the
estimates between 2006 and 2011 are due to actual
changes in what is being measured or to what
Statistics Canada refers to as survey non-response
bias (see Comparability of data from different
sources, in the Annex).
Millions of households (%)
May not add up to 100 due to rounding.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Housing conditions, Canada, 2001-20111
FIGURE 1 1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2011
2006
2001
Households not living in, but able to access,
acceptable housing
Households in core housing need
69.5
69.9
69.2
16.3
17.8
18.4
13.7
12.7
12.5
Households living in acceptable housing

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Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
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CHAPTER ONE
Most households in core housing need
did not meet the affordability standard
As in previous years, the housing standard most commonly
not met in 2011 among households in core housing need
was the housing affordability standard. In 2011, about
89.7% of households in core housing need were below the
housing affordability standard, either alone or in
combination with at least one of the other two standards
(see Figure 1-3).
Households that lived in core housing need in 2011 had,
on average, a higher before-tax shelter-cost-to-income
ratio (STIR) compared to households not in core housing
need, at 49.4% and 18.0%, respectively. The STIRs
of households in core housing need varied widely in
2011, with about 42% having STIRs of at least 50%
(see Figure 1-4).
Only about 10.3% of households fell into core housing
need as a result of not meeting the adequacy or suitability
standards. Roughly 15% of households in core housing
need in 2011 fell below the adequacy standard.
FIGURE 1 2
All figures are rounded.
1 Inflation adjusted.
Source: Statistics Canada (Survey of Consumer Finances (1990-1993); Survey of Consumer Finances and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1994-1997);
Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1998-2011), CANSIM)
Household real1 median income before tax, and unemployment rate, Canada, 1990-2011
Per cent
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Unemployment rate (left scale)
52,000
53,000
54,000
55,000
56,000
57,000
58,000
59,000
60,000
61,000
62,000
63,000
64,000
Household real median income before tax (right scale)
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
2011 constant dollars
FIGURE 1 3
May not add up to 100 due to rounding.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with
incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Households1 in core housing need by housing
standard(s) not met, Canada, 2011
Affordability
and adequacy
8.2%
Suitability only
4.4%
Adequacy only
5.2%
Suitability and adequacy
0.7%
Affordability, suitability
and adequacy
1.0%
Affordability and
suitability
7.2%
Affordability only
73.3%

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Canadian Housing Observer 2014
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
The Atlantic region experienced the largest improvement
in their housing conditions. The incidence of core housing
need fell between 2001 and 2011 in every Atlantic
province and in each of its CMAs. Affordability improved
in the Atlantic region, as household incomes generally
grew faster than shelter costs.
The incidence of core housing need was highest in
Nunavut (at 39.2%). For households in core housing
need, Nunavut had the highest average household income
before taxes (at $58,079) and the lowest average shelter
cost (at $6,228) in 2011.2 This resulted in households in
core housing need in Nunavut having the lowest average
STIR (at 12.3%), well below the national average of
49.4%. In contrast, the share of households in core housing
need who fell below the suitability and adequacy standards
were markedly higher in Nunavut than elsewhere in
Canada. Almost two-thirds (63.5%) of the households
in core housing need in Nunavut were crowded; the
comparable percentage among all Canadian households
in core need was 13.3%.
About 13.3% of households in core housing need in 2011
were crowded, most of which experienced a one-bedroom
shortfall (see Figure 1-5).
The incidence of core housing
need decreased everywhere except
Saskatchewan, Alberta and Nunavut
The reduction in core housing need between 2001 and
2011 occurred in all provinces and territories except
Saskatchewan, Alberta and Nunavut (see Figure 1-6).
In Saskatchewan, the increase of close to 2 percentage
points was driven by deterioration in housing affordability
in Regina, Saskatoon and other urban centres. In Alberta,
the increase was very small and reflected shelter costs
increasing faster than the household incomes for lower
income households. In Nunavut, crowding increased
—as the ages of children increased, some households
required more bedrooms; as well, the need for major
repairs increased.
FIGURE 1 4
All figures are rounded.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with
incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Households1 in core housing need by
shelter-cost-to-income ratio (STIR), Canada, 2011
10.3%
47.5%
42.2%
Less than 30%
Greater than or equal to 30% but less than 50%
Greater than or equal to 50% but less than 100%
FIGURE 1 5
All figures are rounded.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with
incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Households1 in core housing need by bedroom
shortfall, Canada, 2011
One-bedroom
shortfall
10.6%
Three-or-more-
bedroom shortfall
0.5%
No-bedroom shortfall
(Not crowded)
86.7%
Two-bedroom
shortfall
2.2%
2
Low average shelter costs in Nunavut reflects the facts that a significant proportion of households in the territory reside in subsidized housing.

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CHAPTER ONE
British Columbia was the province with the highest
incidence of core housing need in 2011, at 15.4%.
Housing costs were high particularly in its major
centres of Vancouver and Victoria. British Columbia
had the highest STIR of any province in 2011.
The incidence of core housing
need decreased in most Census
Metropolitan Areas
Just under three-quarters of all households in core
housing need resided in Canada’s 33 Census Metropolitan
Areas (CMAs). Following the national trend, most
CMAs experienced a decrease in their incidences of core
housing need between 2001 and 2011 (see Figure 1-7).
Five CMAs experienced declines of at least 3 percentage
points, including Halifax, Saguenay, Québec, Trois-
Rivières, and Ottawa-Gatineau.
FIGURE 1 6
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Incidence of core housing need by Province
and Territory, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Incidence of core housing need (%)
0
10
20
30
40
Nunavut
Northwest Territories
Yukon
British Columbia
Alberta
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada
2001
2006
2011
Fast Facts
The incidence of core housing need in
2011 was 12.5%, down from 13.7%
in 2001; the number of households
in core housing need increased from
1.5 million in 2001 to 1.6 million
in 2011.
Among provinces and territories, Nunavut
(at 39.3%) had the highest incidence of core
housing need in 2011, Prince Edward Island
(at 9.2%) the lowest.
Among Census Metropolitan Areas,
households in Vancouver (at 17.7%)
and Toronto (at 16.9%) had the highest
incidences of core housing need in 2011,
Saguenay (at 5.9%) and Trois-Rivières
(at 8.2%) the lowest.
About 26.4% of renter households were
in core housing need in 2011, compared to
6.5% of households who were homeowners.
Among households in the lowest income
quintile, 56.9% of renter households and
62.6% of owner households with a mortgage
were in core housing need in 2011.
Households in the lowest-income quintile
accounted for 81% of all households in core
housing need in 2011.
Among different household types, female
lone-parent households (at 28.7%) were the
most likely to live in core housing need in 2011,
couple family households without children
were the least likely (at 4.8%).
Off-reserve Aboriginal renter households
(at 34.7%), recent immigrant households
(at 29.6%), and senior renter households
(at 28.9%) experienced well-above-average
incidences of core housing need in 2011.

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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Vancouver, Toronto and Victoria
had the highest incidences of core
housing need among CMAs in 2011
Vancouver, Toronto, and Victoria had the highest
incidences of core housing need among Census
Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) in 2011. Households
in Toronto and Vancouver continued to face a large
affordability burden—Toronto had the highest, and
Vancouver the fifth highest, average shelter costs of
all CMAs. Toronto’s and Vancouver’s STIRs (both
at 24.7%) were the highest of all CMAs in 2011.
With the exception of Montréal,
CMAs in Quebec had relatively
low incidences of core housing need
With the exception of Montréal whose incidence of core
housing need was above the all-CMA average, households
in CMAs in Quebec generally had the lowest incidences
of core housing need among CMAs. These Quebec CMAs
had relatively low average household incomes and low
shelter costs, resulting in low STIRs. Saguenay had the
lowest incidence of core housing need (at 5.9%) in 2011
and the largest improvement from 2001.
Renters were much more likely to
be in core housing need than owners
As in previous years, renters experienced much
higher incidences of core housing need than owners
in 2011 (see Figure 1-8). Renters experienced a
much larger affordability burden than homeowners,
with an average STIR of 28.8%, compared to
18.9% for homeowners.
Renters in Nunavut had the highest incidence of core
housing need in 2011, at 43.7%. Among the provinces,
renters in British Columbia (at 31.3%) were the most
likely to live in core housing need in 2011. For owners,
the lowest incidence of core housing need (3.9%) was in
Quebec in 2011; the highest, among provinces, was in
British Columbia (8.8%) and among the territories,
Nunavut (22.6%).
FIGURE 1 7
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
The Ottawa and Gatineau parts of the Ottawa-Gatineau CMA
are shown separately.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Incidence of core housing need
by CMA, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Incidence of core housing need (%)
2001
2006
2011
0
5
10
15
20
Saguenay
Trois-Rivières
Québec
Moncton
Gatineau
Sherbrooke
Greater Sudbury/Grand Sudbury
Calgary
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo
Winnipeg
Guelph
Thunder Bay
Oshawa
Ottawa - Gatineau
Saint John
Ottawa
Windsor
Edmonton
Hamilton
St. Catharines - Niagara
St. John's
Regina
Kelowna
Saskatoon
Canada
Kingston
London
Halifax
Peterborough
Montréal
All-CMAs
Brantford
Abbotsford - Mission
Barrie
Victoria
Toronto
Vancouver

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CHAPTER ONE
also have lower average incomes; their STIRs are about
half of those of with a mortgage. The incidences of core
housing need of both groups are low and have been fairly
steady from 2001 to 2011 (see Figure 1-10).
Among household types, female
lone-parent households and
female one-person households
had the highest incidences of
core housing need
As in previous years, female lone-parent households
and female one-person households had the highest
incidences of core housing need in 2011, consistent
with their relatively low household incomes; couples
with, and without, children had the lowest incidences
(see Household and dwelling terminology on page 1-17
and Figure 1-11). The incidence of core housing need
among family households was about one-half that
for non-family households.
The incidence of core housing need for renter households
trended downward from 2001 to 2011, while that of
owner households was little changed.
The share of homeowners in
core housing need increased
The tenure composition of households in core housing need
has been changing. Homeowners have accounted for an
increasing share of households in core housing need and
renters a decreasing share (see Figure 1-9). This reflected a
general shift towards homeownership. Between 2001 and
2011, many households took advantage of favourable
mortgage rates and became new homeowners.
Owners living mortgage-free have
much lower shelter costs than those
with mortgages; both have low
incidences of core housing need
Owners living mortgage-free have consistently had
much lower average annual shelter costs than those
with a mortgage. Those owners who are mortgage-free
FIGURE 1 8
Incidence of core housing need
by housing tenure, Canada,
2001, 2006 and 20111
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
2011
2006
2001
Per cent
Incidence of core housing need
Renters
Owners
6.6
28.3
6.3
27.2
6.5
26.4
FIGURE 1 9
Distribution of core housing need
by housing tenure, Canada,
2001, 2006 and 20111 (%)
Owners
Renters
Outer ring:
2011
Inner ring:
2001
May not add up to 100 due to rounding.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Middle ring:
2006
64
66
68
32
34
36

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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Non-family households and lone-parent households
accounted for disproportionately large shares of all
households in core housing need in 2011 (see Figure 1-12).
Even though couples had the lowest incidence of core
housing need, they accounted for about 28% of all
households in core housing need, as they represented
the majority (57%) of all households in 2011.
Although having relatively low shelter costs, because of
their relatively low incomes lone-parent and non-family
households faced a much larger affordability burden,
reflected in average STIRs (26.3% and 28.3%,
respectively) which were higher than the national
average (21.9%).
Households whose primary maintainer
is 15 to 29 years of age were more likely
to live in core housing need than those
in older age groups
The incidence of core housing need of households whose
primary household maintainer (see Household and
dwelling terminology in the Glossary in the Annex) is
15 to 29 years of age exceeded that of older age groups
in 2011 (see Figure 1-13). It decreased from 2001 to
2011, as did the share of households in core housing need
FIGURE 1 11
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Incidence of core housing need by household
type, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Incidence of core housing need (%)
0
10
20
30
40
Two or more person households
Male one-person households
Female one-person households
One-person households
Non-family households
Multiple-family households
Male lone-parent households
Female lone-parent households
Lone-parent households
Couples with children
Couples without children
One-family households
Family households
All households
2001
2006
2011
FIGURE 1 10
Incidence of core housing need and average STIR for owner households
by mortgage status, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Per cent
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
With a mortgage
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
With a mortgage
With a mortgage
Without a mortgage
Without a mortgage
Without a mortgage
Incidence of core housing need
Households not in core housing need
Households in core housing need
Average STIR
6.6
6.5
6.6
6.5
6.0
6.2
21.0
21.7
21.7
9.7
9.9
9.8
55.8
57.2
57.8
37.5
38.9
39.7

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accounted for by these young households (see Figure 1-14);
however, in 2011 the share was still disproportionate to
their share (9.4%) of all households. Many of these young
households had relatively low incomes and were renters.
In 2011, the largest share of households in core housing
need was accounted for by households whose maintainers
were aged 45 to 64, although the households in this baby
boomer age group had the lowest incidence of core housing
need. This share (37%) was disproportionately low, as
households in this age group accounted for about 42%
of all households. Household maintainers in this age group
are typically at the top of their earning lifecycle.
Senior households had the second highest
incidence of core housing need
Senior households (whose primary household maintainer
is 65 years and older) had the second highest incidence
of core housing need. Even though, among households in
core housing need, senior households had the lowest average
household income before-taxes, they also had the lowest
average shelter cost. This resulted in them having the
FIGURE 1 12
All figures are rounded.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with
incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Distribution of all households1 and of those
in core housing need by household type,
Canada, 2011 (%)
Couple
Non family
Lone parent
Multiple family
Outer ring:
households in core housing need
50
28
31
57
21
10
1
2
Inner ring:
all households
FIGURE 1 13
Incidence of core housing need by age of
the primary household maintainer,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Per cent
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Incidence of core housing need
15-29 Years
30-44 Years
65 years old or
older (senior
households)
45-64 Years
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
18.6
16.0 15.1
13.1 12.9 12.511.1 10.9 11.2
16.9
14.4 13.7
FIGURE 1 14
Distribution of core housing need by
age of the primary household maintainer,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111 (%)
15-29 years
30-44 years
May not add up to 100 due to rounding.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
45-64 years
65 years
old or older
(senior
households)
Outer ring:
2011
Inner ring:
2001
Middle ring:
2006
14
12
11
31 29
26
37
34
29
26
25
25

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held for every household type; for example, the
incidence of core housing need among off-reserve
Aboriginal lone-parent households was 40.4%
compared to 25.2% for non-Aboriginal lone-parent
households in 2011. The incidence of core housing
need for off-reserve Aboriginal households decreased
from 2001 to 2011. Despite this decrease, the share
of off-reserve Aboriginal households among households
in core housing need increased from 4.8% in 2001
to 6.2% in 2011. This reflected faster growth from
2001 to 2011 in the off-reserve Aboriginal household
population (69%) than in the non-Aboriginal
household population (14%).
lowest average shelter-cost-to-income ratio (STIR)
(at 46.2%) among households in core housing need
regardless of age; for comparison, the STIR for non-
senior households in core housing need was 50.5%.
The incidence of core housing need among senior
households who owned their homes was very different
for those with a mortgage (at 14.0%) and those without
a mortgage (at 6.5%). For those in core housing need,
senior households with a mortgage had much higher
shelter costs (at $14,016) than those without a mortgage
(at $7,188), and much higher STIRs (57.9% compared
to 36.8%).
Among senior households, the household type with the
highest incidence of core housing need in 2011 was non-
family households, at 35.5% for renters and 16.6% for
owners. Most of these were female one-person households,
and some of these would be dependent on the reduced
spousal provision of a pension earned by their deceased
spouse. Senior non-family households in core housing need
also had the lowest incomes (at $8,712) and the highest
STIRs (at 47.9% for renters and 45.8% for owners)
among senior households.
Despite experiencing a decrease in their incidence of
core housing need, from 16.9% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2011,
senior households continued to account for about one-
quarter of all households in core housing need in 2011.
This was mostly as a result of the number of seniors
households growing at a faster pace (at 23.8%) than non-
seniors households (at 13.0%) between 2001 and 2011.
Off-reserve Aboriginal households
experienced above-average
incidences of core housing need
Off-reserve Aboriginal households3 experienced higher
incidences of core housing need than non-Aboriginal
households in 2011 (see Figure 1-15). This relationship
FIGURE 1 15
Incidence of core housing need for
off-reserve Aboriginal households,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Per cent
Non-Aboriginal households
Off-reserve Aboriginal households
0
5
10
15
20
25
2011
2006
2001
24.0
13.5
20.4
12.4
19.0
12.2
3
Aboriginal households are defined here as one of the following:
a) A non-family household in which at least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal; or
b) A family household that meets at least one of two criteria:
At least one spouse, common-law partner, or lone parent self-identified as an Aboriginal; or
At least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal.
A person self-identifies as being Aboriginal on the questionnaire.

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CHAPTER ONE
Among Aboriginal households living
on-reserve, about one-third lived below
one or both of the adequacy and suitability
standards and had incomes insufficient to
meet the cost of acceptable housing
Housing costs for most on-reserve6 households are paid
through band housing arrangements, so information on
shelter costs is not collected by the NHS, and housing
affordability and core housing need cannot be determined.
However, the adequacy and suitability of housing on-reserve
can be examined, and using household incomes which are
collected on-reserve, the percentage of households living in
housing below standard(s) and unable to meet the cost of
acceptable housing can also be derived.
In 2011, among all Aboriginal households living
on-reserve, 28.9% lived below only the adequacy
standard, 10.4% lived below only the suitability standard,
and 10.5% lived below both standards. In 2011, 33.4%
of Aboriginal on-reserve households lived below one
or both of the adequacy and suitability standards and
had incomes that were insufficient to meet the costs of
acceptable housing.
The incidence of core housing need
was higher among immigrants than
non-immigrants
The incidence of core housing need for immigrant
households7 continued to exceed that of non-immigrant
households in 2011 (see Figure 1-17). Immigrant renters
had a higher incidence of core housing need (at 32.8%)
than non-immigrant renters (at 24.4%) in 2011.
Core housing need for off-reserve Aboriginal households
varied in 2011 by Aboriginal household identity;4 Inuit
households had the highest incidence, followed by Status
Indian households, Non-status Indian households, and
Métis households (see Figure 1-16).5
FIGURE 1 16
Incidence of core housing need by identity1
of off-reserve Aboriginal households,
Canada, 20112
1 The Aboriginal identity of households is based on the identification
reported for each of its members. If at least one member of an
Aboriginal household identifies as being Inuit, Métis, a Non-status
Indian, or Status Indian the household is counted in that group.
A household can be counted in more than one Aboriginal group.
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Per cent
Off-reserve Aboriginal households
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Inuit households
Métis households
Non-status
Indian households
Status Indian
households
All off-reserve
Aboriginal households
19.0
23.4
18.6
15.3
33.6
4
The Aboriginal identity of households is based on the identification reported for each of its members. If at least one member of an Aboriginal
household identifies as being Inuit, Métis, a Non-status Indian, or Status Indian the household is counted in that group. A household can be
counted in more than one Aboriginal group.
5 See the Aboriginal Housing Conditions section of the Canadian Housing Observer’s Online Data Tables for more data on Aboriginal housing
conditions.
6
On-reserve in this chapter includes households in Census Subdivisions (CSDs) identified as Indian Reserves, Indian Settlements, Indian
Government Districts, Terres réservées aux Cris, Terres réservées aux Naskapis, Nisga’a Land, Self-Government (in Yukon) or Teslin Land.
7
An immigrant household is one whose primary maintainer has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.
The category is not defined by length of time in Canada or by citizenship status.

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Canadian Housing Observer 2014
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Households in the lowest-income
quintile were the most likely income
group to live in core housing need
As in previous years, the incidence of core housing need
decreases as household income rises (see Figure 1-19). In
2011, about one-half of households in the lowest-income
quintile9 were in core housing need. Previous research has
shown that households in the lowest-income quintile who
were not in core housing need were largely those seniors
who owned their accommodation with no mortgage; or
renters who were living in those urban areas with relatively
low shelter costs or in government-subsidized housing or
with rents calculated on the basis of household income.10
The incidence of core housing need for immigrant
owners core housing need was 10.2%, almost twice
that of non-immigrant owners (at 5.3%).
For immigrant households, the incidence of core
housing need declines with length of time in Canada
(see Figure 1-18). The incidence of core housing need
of recent immigrant renter households8 (at 37.6%)
was more than double that of recent immigrant
homeowners (at 16.3%). There is additional
discussion of newcomers’ housing conditions
in the chapter: Newcomers’ Housing.
FIGURE 1 17
Incidence of core housing need by
immigrant status of the household,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Per cent
Non-immigrant households
Immigrant households
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
2011
2006
2001
18.3
12.4
18.2
11.0
17.0
11.0
FIGURE 1 18
Incidence of core housing need by immigrant
status and period of immigration
of the household, Canada, 20111
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Per cent
Immigrant household by
period of immigration
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
2006 and 2011
2001 and 2005
1996 and 2000
1986 and 1995
Before 1986
All immigrant
households
Non-permanent
resident households
Non-immigrant
households
11.0
25.4
17.0
12.9
18.3
18.9
20.3
29.6
8
Recent immigrant households are immigrant households whose primary maintainer arrived in Canada from January 1, 2006 to Census Day,
May 10, 2011.
9 Households were ranked by their before-tax household income and divided into five equally-sized groups (quintiles). For descriptive purposes,
these groups are referred to as follows: lowest-income, moderate-income, middle-income, upper-income, and highest-income.
10 See “Low-income Urban Households Not in Core Housing Need”, Research Highlight. Socio-economic Series: 09-001. Ottawa: Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 2009. www.cmhc.ca/od/?pid=66391 (April 15, 2014).

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CHAPTER ONE
Further analysis of housing conditions
to be profiled in a series of Research
Highlights
As we have done for previous censuses, we will be
publishing a series of Research Highlights on our
website examining housing conditions in more
detail based on data from the 2011 NHS.11
You can access considerable additional data on our
web site (see text box Data on housing conditions).
Almost all households in core housing
need were in the lowest-income or
moderate-income quintiles
Households in the lowest-income quintile accounted
for 81% of all households in core housing need in 2011,
while moderate-income quintile households accounted
for 17% (see Figure 1-20).
FIGURE 1 19
Incidence of core housing need by income
quintile,1 Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20112
Per cent
1 Households were ranked by their before-tax household income
and divided into five equally-sized groups (quintiles). For descriptive
purposes, these groups are referred to as follows: lowest-income,
moderate-income, middle-income, upper-income, and highest-income.
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households
with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income
ratios (STIRs) less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
2001
2011
2006
Low-income
quintile
Moderate-income
quintile
Other income
quintiles
54.6 51.050.4
12.3 11.2 10.8
0.6
0.4
0.4
FIGURE 1 20
All figures are rounded.
There are no households in core housing need in the highest-income
quintile.
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with
incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100%.
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Distribution of households1 in core housing
need by household income quintile,
Canada, 2011
Lowest
81.0%
Middle
1.6%
Moderate
17.3%
Upper
0.1%
11 Research Highlights, Socio-economic Series, on www.cmhc.ca
The average household income before-tax of the moderate-
income households in core housing need in 2011 ($39,255)
was more than double that of the lowest-income households
in core housing need ($18,491), and their average shelter
costs were about 71% ($6,552) higher, at $15,768 and
$9,216, respectively. The average shelter-cost-to-income
ratio (STIR) for the lowest-income households in core
housing need (at 51.7%) was the highest of all income
groups in core housing need in 2011.

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CHAPTER ONE
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Data on housing conditions may be found in the tables in the Annex and at www.cmhc.ca/observer.
Data Tables
Our website also provides additional housing data spreadsheets with longer timelines for Canada, the Provinces/
Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas.
Interactive Information
Create custom views and comparisons of highlighted Observer data using the map and charts. Interactive
local data tables include over 160 municipalities.
Housing in Canada Online (HICO)
Use this interactive tool to build custom tables and for analyzing data on housing conditions, including
core housing need.
Data on housing conditions

Page 17
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-15
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Glossary
Household and dwelling terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Acceptable housing and core housing need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Shelter-cost-to-income ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Supplemental information and analysis
Evolution of the assessment of housing need in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
Housing conditions of urban households, 2002-2011, based on data
from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
Annex Figure 1-1: Incidences of urban core housing need based on Census,
NHS, and SLID, Canada and Provinces, 2001-2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Annex Figure 1-2: Incidences of core housing need based on Census,
NHS, and SLID, selected Census Metropolitan Areas, 2001-2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
How do Census-, NHS- and SLID-based estimates of core housing need
line up for Provinces and selected CMAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Annex Figure 1-3: Incidence of urban core housing need, median depth of
housing need, and Canadian unemployment rate, 2002-2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Data sources used to estimate housing need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Comparability of data from different sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-24
Annex
L.A.C. Panton, View from Window Central Technical School Toronto, 1925, Watercolour,
graphite and conté on wove paper, 10” x 13”, FAC 1055, Firestone Collection of Canadian Art,
The Ottawa Art Gallery; Donated to the City of Ottawa by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Photo Credit: Tim Wickens

Page 18
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-16
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Tables
Table 1-1
Households below housing standard(s), Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Table 1-2
Housing conditions, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
Table 1-3
Housing conditions by tenure, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Table 1-4
Housing conditions, Canada and Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 2011 . . . . . . . . 1-28
Table 1-5
Housing conditions by tenure, Canada and Census
Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29
Table 1-6
Housing conditions by household type, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30
Table 1-7
Housing conditions by selected household type, Canada and
Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-31
Table 1-8
Housing conditions by household type, tenure, and
presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-32
Table 1-9
Housing conditions by age of primary household maintainer, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . 1-33
Table 1-10 Housing conditions by age of primary household maintainer,
tenure, and presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-34
Table 1-11 Housing conditions of senior households by tenure and
household type, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
Table 1-12 Housing conditions of off-reserve Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
households by household type, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-36
Table 1-13 Housing conditions of off-reserve Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal
households by household type and tenure, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-37
Table 1-14 Housing conditions by immigrant status of the primary household
maintainer, period of immigration and tenure, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-38
Table 1-15 Housing conditions by household income quintile, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-39
Table 1-16 Housing conditions of household by household income quintile,
tenure, and presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-40
Table 1-17 Housing conditions, Canada and urban areas, 1991-2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-41

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CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Glossary
Household and dwelling terminology
Household – one or more people who occupy a private
dwelling (see definition below) and do not have a usual
place of residence elsewhere in Canada. Foreign residents
visiting Canada, members of the Armed Forces of another
country stationed in Canada and their family members
living with them, and government representatives of
another country and their family members are not
included in census counts. Non-permanent residents
—people who are lawfully in Canada on a temporary
basis—are counted by the Census.
Family household – a household that contains at least
one census family (a couple with or without children
or a lone parent living with one or more children).
Non-family household – a person living alone, or two
or more people who share a dwelling and who do not
constitute a family.
Primary household maintainer – the person or one
of the people in the household responsible for major
household payments such as the rent or mortgage. In
households with more than one maintainer, the primary
maintainer is the first person listed as the maintainer.
Collective dwelling – dwellings of a commercial,
institutional, or communal nature, such as rooming
houses, hotels, hospitals, nursing homes, jails, and
group homes.
Private dwelling – a dwelling that is not a collective
dwelling (as defined above).
Acceptable housing and core housing need
Acceptable housing meets three housing standards: it is
adequate in condition, suitable in size, and affordable.
Adequate housing does not require any major repairs,
according to residents. Major repairs include defective
plumbing or electrical wiring, or structural repairs to
walls, floors, or ceilings.
Suitable housing has enough bedrooms for the size
and make-up of resident households, according to
National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements.
Enough bedrooms based on NOS requirements means
one bedroom for each cohabiting adult couple; lone
parent; unattached household member age 18 or older;
same-sex pair of children under age 18; and additional
boy or girl in the family, unless there are two opposite
sex children under 5 years of age, in which case they
are expected to share a bedroom. A household of one
individual can occupy a bachelor unit (i.e., a unit
with no bedroom).
Affordable housing costs less than 30% of before-tax
household income. For renters, shelter costs include, as
applicable, rent and payments for electricity, fuel, water
and other municipal services. For owners, shelter costs
include, as applicable, mortgage payments (principal
and interest), property taxes, condominium fees, and
payments for electricity, fuel, water and other
municipal services.
A household is in core housing need if its housing does
not meet one or more of the adequacy, suitability or
affordability standards and it would have to spend 30%
or more of its before-tax income to access local housing
that meets all three standards.
Assessing whether a household is in core housing need
thus involves two steps:
1. Determining whether or not the household
lives in acceptable housing; and
2. If the household does not live in acceptable housing,
determining whether its before-tax income is sufficient
to access acceptable local housing.

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CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
that it can afford to pay based on the affordability
standard of shelter costs being less than 30% of
before-tax household income.
Depth of housing need, in communities where
market rents can be estimated, is calculated as
median rent of local market housing minus 30%
of before-tax household income.
Depth ratio, in communities where market rents
can be estimated, is calculated as the depth of
housing need divided by the median rent of local
housing, multiplied by 100.
Calculations differ slightly for households in core need
whose housing is suitable and adequate and whose shelter
costs are below the median rent of local housing but
greater than 30% of before-tax household income.
Depth of housing need is calculated as reported shelter
cost minus 30% of before-tax household income.
Depth ratio is calculated as the depth of housing need
divided by the reported shelter cost, multiplied by 100.
Median depth of housing need is the middle value when
households are ranked in order of their depth of need.
Incidence of core housing need
The incidence of core housing need is to the number
of households in core housing need as a percentage
of all households.
Shelter-cost-to-income ratio (STIR)
The STIR is calculated for each household by dividing
shelter cost by total household income. Shelter costs
include, as applicable, rent, mortgage payments (principal
and interest), property taxes, condominium fees, and
payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal
services. The average STIR is the average of the STIR for
each household; it cannot be calculated by dividing the
average shelter cost by the average income.
Not all households in below-standard
housing are in core housing need
If a household not living in acceptable housing can
access acceptable local housing for less than 30% of its
before-tax income, it is not in core housing need; it is
in core housing need only if acceptable local housing
would cost 30% or more of its before-tax income.
In communities where market rents can be estimated, the
cost of acceptable local housing is calculated using the
median rent of rental units with the number of bedrooms
the household requires. Elsewhere, the cost of acceptable
local housing is based on the estimated monthly carrying
cost of a newly constructed home with the number of
bedrooms the household requires.
Which households are assessed
for core housing need?
Only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve
households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-
cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% are assessed
for core housing need. Farms are excluded because shelter
costs for farm households are not separable from costs
related to other farm structures. Band households are
excluded because shelter costs are not collected for
households whose housing costs are paid through band
housing arrangements. Reserve households are excluded
because, given communal land tenure in most reserve
communities, the distinction among different tenures as
reported on-reserve may be less clear than off-reserve. For
the purpose of measuring affordability, we regard STIRs
of 100% or more, STIRs for households with incomes
of zero or less, and STIRs of households living in non-
band housing on reserves as uninterpretable. Overall,
of Canada’s 13.3 million households in 2011, about
12.5 million could be assessed for core housing need.
Depth of housing need measures the comparative
severity of core housing need, e.g. for different categories
of households or over different time periods.
Depth of housing need for a household in core housing
need is the difference between the amount that it would
need to pay for acceptable housing and the amount

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the development of the federal/provincial/territorial social
housing programs to use a shelter-cost-to-income ratio
threshold of 30%. A household was recognized to be
spending more than the norm if its shelter-cost-to-income
ratio (before-tax) was at or above 30%. However, it was
also recognized that a household could spend more than
this norm out of choice, so only households with no
alternative were viewed as having an affordability problem
and in need of social housing assistance.
Finally, Canada developed an integrated indicator which
first identifies those households whose housing is below
at least one of the adequacy, suitability and affordability
standards. It then compares the household income of
each of these households with that necessary to access
acceptable local housing which meets all three standards.
In communities where market rents can be estimated, the
cost of acceptable housing is calculated using the median
rent of rental units with the number of bedrooms the
household requires. Elsewhere, the cost of acceptable
housing is based on the estimated monthly carrying
cost of a newly constructed home with the number
of bedrooms the household requires.
Those households in below-standard(s) housing
which have insufficient income to access acceptable
local housing are said to be in core housing need.
The core housing need indicator thus provides an
integrated picture of housing need, addressing the
following issues:
Looking at adequacy, suitability and affordability
indicators only in isolation; and
Whether a household is living in below-standard
housing out of choice.
Housing conditions of urban households,
2002-2011, based on data from the Survey
of Labour and Income Dynamics
Data for core housing need for urban areas are presented
in Annex Figures 1-1 and 1-2 from the 2011 NHS, the
2001 and 2006 censuses, and, for 2002 to 2011, from
the annual Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).
Evolution of the assessment of housing
need in Canada
Views of what is considered acceptable housing have
changed over time with increasing household income,
advances in materials and building science, and changing
tastes. For example, before they became common and
expected, housing adequacy in Canada was measured by
whether or not a dwelling possessed basic plumbing
facilities. Subsequently in the 1980s, adequacy came
to be measured by whether or not a dwelling needed
major repairs, and this is still the standard for adequacy
today. The data on which the assessment is based are
self-reported by occupants who are given guidance as
to what constitutes major and minor repairs, and regular
maintenance. The alternative of having an expert assess
housing adequacy would be too costly.
Housing suitability, which measures whether or not a
household’s accommodation is crowded, was previously
measured in Canada by whether or not there was more
than one person (regardless of relationship) per room
(regardless, to some extent, of type of room—some rooms,
such as bathrooms, halls, vestibules, and rooms used solely
for business purposes, are excluded). We held extensive
consultations with provincial housing agencies in the
1980s which resulted in the National Occupancy Standard
(NOS); it sets out a formula for determining the number
of bedrooms a household requires based on both the
household size and its composition. This standard is used
in a more sophisticated housing suitability measure—still
in use today—which compares the number of bedrooms
in the dwelling with the number required under the NOS.
The improvement in the housing suitability indicator
came with a cost; namely, more data (on age, sex and
relationship of all persons in the household) are required
for it to be estimated. The NOS represents one agreed-
upon view from among many potential possibilities
as to what would constitute crowding.
Housing affordability has been, and still is, based on
the proportion of before-tax household income spent on
shelter; however, the income threshold applied has varied
from the original 25% (based on one week’s wages for
one month of housing). In 1986, it was agreed during
Supplemental information and analysis

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CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
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Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
ANNE
X FIGURE 11
All figures are rounded.
Note: SLID-based housing data are unavailable for 2001.
For information on differences betw
een Census-based
, NHS-based and SLID-based estimates, see
Data sources
used to estimate housing need
on page 1-22.
Source: CMHC (Census-, NHS- and SLID-based housing indicators and data)
Incidences of urban core housing need based on Census, NHS
, and SLID
, Canada and Provinces, 2001-2011
Per cent
Ne
wfoundland and Labrador
Per cent
Prince Edward Island
Per cent
No
va Scotia
Per cent
Ne
w Brunswick
Per cent
Manitoba
Per cent
British Columbia
Quebec
Saskatche
wan
Ontario
Alber
ta
Per cent
CANAD
A
Census
SLID
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
Per cent
Per cent
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
Per cent
Per cent
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
NHS

Page 23
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-21
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
ANNE
X FIGURE 12
All figures are rounded.
Note: SLID-based housing data are unavailable for 2001.
For information on differences betw
een Census-based
, NHS-based and SLID-based estimates, see
Data sources
used
to estimate housing need
on page 1-22.
Source: CMHC (Census-, NHS- and SLID-based housing indicators and data)
Incidences of core housing need based on Census, NHS, and SLID
, selected Census Metro
politan Areas, 2001-201
1
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Per cent
Census
SLID
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
Per cent
Per cent
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
Per cent
Per cent
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
0
4
8
12
16
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
NHS
Halifax
Québec
Montréal
Ottawa-Gatineau
Regina
Edmonton
To
ronto
Saskatoon
Winnipeg
Calgary
V
ancouver

Page 24
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-22
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Data sources used to estimate housing need
In the early 1980s, we sponsored housing questions on
Statistics Canada’s Household Facilities and Equipment
Survey to measure housing need for renter households.
In 1985 we and our provincial housing partners agreed
on the need to measure housing need for homeowner
households as well as renters, and worked with Statistics
Canada to develop the 1990 Shelter Cost Survey, see
http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=get
Survey&SDDS=3507 (October 16, 2014).
Housing data from the Census and
National Household Survey
Beginning with the 1991 Census of Population, we have
sponsored questions on the mandatory long-form Census,
and continued with this sponsorship on the voluntary
National Household Survey (NHS) which replaced the
long-form Census in 2011.
Because of its relatively small sample size, SLID data
have less precision than census or NHS data.
The census data suggest that the Canadian incidence of
urban core housing need declined from 2001 to 2006,
and the NHS data suggest this improvement continued
to 2011. The SLID data suggest that urban core housing
need improved (i.e., declined) from 2002 to 2007. The
economic recession of 2008-2009 eroded these gains,
increasing the incidence of urban core housing need
by 2011 to about what it had been in 2002.
How do Census-, NHS- and SLID-based
estimates of core housing need line up
for Provinces and selected CMAs?
Census/NHS income estimates are for the previous year
(e.g. 2010 for the 2011 NHS) and shelter cost estimates
are for the same year as Census Day (e.g. 2011 for the
2011 NHS). For SLID, income estimates are for the
reference year (e.g. 2010 for the 2010 SLID) and shelter
costs estimates are for the first quarter of the following
year (e.g. 2011 for the 2010 SLID). Therefore, it would
be expected that SLID estimates of core housing need for
2005 and 2010 should align best with 2006 Census and
2011 NHS estimates, respectively, for urban households.
For Canada and some provinces such as Ontario and
British Columbia, the alignment appears to be better
for the 2005 SLID and the 2006 Census than for the
2010 SLID and the 2011 NHS (see Annex Figure 1-1).
For other provinces, such as Quebec, the reverse
appears to be the case.
For selected CMAs (see Annex Figure 1-2), the alignment
appears better for Montréal, Toronto and Winnipeg than
for Vancouver, Regina or Halifax.
Depth of housing need unchanged in 2011
The depth of housing need for urban households in
core housing need appears to have changed little from
2010 to 2011; the median depth of need was $2,050
in 2011 (in 2011 constant dollars); in 2010, it was
$2,030 (see Annex Figure 1-3).
The median depth of need peaked at $2,380 in 2009,
the year in which the unemployment was highest.
ANNEX FIGURE 1 3
All figures are rounded.
Source: CMHC (SLID-based housing indicators and data);
Statistics Canada: Labour Force Survey (2002-2011)
Incidence of urban core housing need,
median depth of housing need, and Canadian
unemployment rate, 2002-2011
Per cent
Unemployment rate (left scale)
Percentage of urban households in core housing need
(left scale)
2011 constant dollars
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
Median depth of housing need (right scale)

Page 25
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-23
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
of the country, respondents were asked to complete the
questionnaire online or by mail; and follow-up was
conducted by enumerators with households who had
not yet responded. About 3 million households responded;
the response rate was 68.6%, similar to rates on other
voluntary surveys conducted by Statistics Canada.
Income estimates from the 2011 NHS are for 2010,
and shelter cost estimates are for 2011.
Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics
(SLID)
SLID was an annual household survey conducted
by Statistics Canada that collected information on the
labour and income characteristics from a sample of some
68,000 adults or about 34,000 households. SLID covered
the 10 Canadian provinces but excludes households in
the territories, in institutions or collective dwellings, in
military barracks and on Indian reserves. The final year
for which Statistics Canada provided cross-sectional data
from SLID is 2011 and the final year for which it
provided longitudinal data is 2010.
Beginning with the 2002 reference year, we sponsored
housing questions on SLID in order to obtain annual
estimates of urban housing need in intercensal as well as
censal years. This has provided cross-sectional (point-in-
time) estimates of housing need for urban households
from 2002 to 2011 which are discussed in the chapter.
SLID also provided longitudinal estimates for 2002 to
2010 of individuals living in urban households in core
housing need, including persistence of core housing
need over three- and six-year periods, and year-to-year
movements into and out of core housing need. See
“Recent Trends in Housing Affordability and Core
Housing Need” in the 2013 Canadian Housing Observer
www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/corp/about/cahoob/upload/
chapter_6_68001_w_acc.pdf (April 14, 2014).
Core housing need estimates from SLID are produced
only for urban areas because the rental market data
used in the calculation of core housing need are not
available annually for smaller centres. Urban areas
here include Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and
Census Agglomerations (CAs) in the 10 provinces.
Census of Population
The Census of Population collects demographic and other
information on the population of Canada. Its large sample
provides extensive scope for cross-classification of data and
a degree of local geographic detail that surveys with
smaller samples cannot match.
In recent years prior to changes introduced in 2011, the
census consisted of two mandatory questionnaires: a short-
form and a long-form. Most households (80%) received
only the short-form questionnaire, which contained
questions on basic topics such as age, sex, marital status,
and mother tongue. One in five households (20%)
received the long-form questionnaire, which contained
additional questions on topics such as education, ethnicity,
mobility, income, employment, housing and dwelling
characteristics. Starting with the 1991 Census, we began
deriving core housing need estimates using data from the
long-form questionnaire.
The 2011 Census was conducted using a short-form
questionnaire which consisted of the following
components:
1. The same eight questions that appeared on the
2006 Census short-form questionnaire; and
2. Two additional questions on knowledge of
official languages and languages spoken at home.
It collected data from some 33.5 million people
and 13.5 million households.
The National Household Survey (NHS), 2011
In 2011, the mandatory long-form census questionnaire
was replaced by the voluntary National Household
Survey (NHS). The NHS provides social and economic
information for communities so that they may better
plan services such as child care, schooling, family services,
housing, roads and public transportation, and skills
training for employment. A random sample of 4.5 million
households was invited to respond to a 64-question survey
questionnaire which Statistics Canada had updated from
the long-form questionnaire used in the 2006 Census.
In remote areas and on Indian reserves, information
was gathered in face-to-face interviews. In other areas

Page 26
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-24
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Comparability of data from
different sources
Data based on the 2011 NHS, previous censuses, and
the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics may not
be strictly comparable due to methodological differences.
Statistics Canada has advised caution in comparing
Census-based and NHS-based estimates. This is because
the change of methodology from a mandatory to a
voluntary survey introduces some uncertainty as to what
extent differences are due to actual changes in what is
being measured or to what Statistics Canada refers to
as survey non-response bias. Non-response bias is a
potential source of error for all surveys. It arises when the
characteristics of those who choose to participate in the
survey are different than those who refuse, and increases
as the response rate declines. Generally, the risk of
error increases for lower levels of geography and for
smaller populations. See 2011 National Household
Survey (NHS): Design and Quality, presentation to
the Housing Data Working Group of the National
Housing Research Committee on November 5, 2013,
at http://www.nhrc-cnrl.ca/sites/default/files/Margaret
%20Michalowski_HD_E_0.pdf (April 14, 2014).
While the change from a mandatory to voluntary survey
may have affected comparability of the data from the
NHS to earlier censuses, for 2011 the NHS is the most
comprehensive source of data on Canadian households.
The survey sampled about 4.5 million households, with
68.6% (about 3 million households) responding. The
NHS continues the Census’s tradition of providing
detailed data not available from other surveys in Canada;
useful data from the NHS are available at the municipal
and even neighbourhood levels (Statistics Canada has
suppressed data for some communities for confidentiality,
as well as data quality and non-response issues), as well
as for Canada, the provinces and territories. Further,
because of the large sample size of the survey, combinations
of many variables can be analyzed. When using the
NHS to estimate core housing need, we undertook a
comprehensive review of the data, including the inputs
into core housing need. The housing need estimates
reasonably represent housing conditions in 2011.
A CMA must have a total population of at least
100,000, of which 50,000 or more must live in the core.
A CA must have a core population of at least 10,000.
Excluding the territories, about 83% of households
assessed for core housing need lived in CMAs or CAs,
according to data from the 2011 NHS.
Since the SLID sample of about 34,000 households is
much smaller than the 2006 Census and 2011 NHS
samples, SLID-based estimates have less precision than
estimates based on census or NHS data. Thus differences
between SLID-based estimates, either from year to year
or between categories or geographic areas, may not be
statistically significant. Where possible, the significance
of differences between estimates has been assessed using
measures of precision of the estimates [coefficients of
variation (CVs—the coefficient of variation (CV) is the
standard error divided by the estimate; the smaller the
CV, the more accurate the estimate)] provided by Statistics
Canada. Letter grades indicating quality levels for
estimates are provided in some tables:
“A” indicates excellent data quality, with a CV
of less than 2%.
“B” indicates very good quality, with a CV between
2% and 3.9%.
“C” indicates good quality, with a CV between 4%
and 7.9%.
“D” indicates acceptable quality, with a CV between
8% and 15.9%.
“E” indicates that the estimate should be used
with caution since its CV is 16% or more.
“F” indicates that the estimate has been suppressed
due to unacceptable data quality—it either
has a CV of more than 33% or it is based
on 25 observations or fewer.
Income estimates from the 2011 SLID are for 2011, and
shelter cost estimates are as of the first quarter of 2012.

Page 27
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-25
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Households1 below housing standard(s), Canada, 2011
Housing standard(s)
not met
All households
Able to access
acceptable housing
Unable to access acceptable
housing - in core housing need
Number
(thousands)
Per cent
Cumulative
Per cent
Number
(thousands)
Per cent
Cumulative
Per cent
Number
(thousands)
Per cent
Cumulative
Per cent
Affordability only
2,311
18 .5
18 .5
1,174
9 .4
9 .4
1,138
9 .2
9 .2
Affordability and
adequacy
219
1 .8
20 .3
91
0 .8
10 .2
127
1 .0
10 .2
Affordability and
suitability
151
1 .2
21 .5
39
0 .3
10 .5
112
0 .9
11 .1
Affordability, suitability
and adequacy
18
0 .1
21 .6
3
0 .0
10 .5
15
0 .1
11 .2
Suitability only
505
4 .1
25 .7
436
3 .5
14 .0
68
0 .6
11 .8
Adequacy only
586
4 .7
30 .4
506
4 .1
18 .1
80
0 .6
12 .4
Suitability and adequacy
53
0 .4
30 .8
42
0 .3
18 .4
12
0 .1
12 .5
Total
3,843
30 .8
2,291
18 .4
1,552
12 .5
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-1
Tables

Page 28
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-26
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 20111
Number of
households
(thousands)
Number of
households in
core housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing need
(%)
For households in core housing need
Average
household income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter cost
($)
Average STIR
before taxes
(%)
Canada
12,462
1,552
12.5
22,833
10,476
49.4
Newfoundland and Labrador
202
23
11 .4
18,225
7,764
45 .6
Prince Edward Island
54
5
9 .2
17,812
8,340
49 .9
Nova Scotia
370
46
12 .5
18,376
8,184
48 .5
New Brunswick
299
30
9 .9
16,997
7,380
46 .3
Quebec
3,224
348
10 .8
17,025
7,896
50 .5
Ontario
4,600
617
13 .4
25,086
11,796
49 .9
Manitoba
423
43
10 .3
22,018
8,436
43 .8
Saskatchewan
359
47
13 .2
23,917
9,324
43 .8
Alberta
1,285
137
10 .7
26,671
12,264
49 .7
British Columbia
1,611
247
15 .4
24,568
11,580
50 .1
Yukon
13
2
14 .6
33,892
10,344
38 .3
Northwest Territories
14
2
15 .7
37,500
10,788
32 .6
Nunavut
9
3
39 .2
58,079
6,228
12 .3
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-2

Page 29
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-27
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions by tenure, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 20111
Incidence of core housing need (%)
All households
Owners
Renters
Nunavut
39 .3
22 .6
43 .7
Northwest Territories
15 .7
9 .8
22 .1
British Columbia
15 .4
8 .8
31 .3
Yukon
14 .6
10 .1
24 .9
Ontario
13 .4
7 .2
29 .6
Saskatchewan
13 .2
7 .7
29 .0
Canada
12.5
6.5
26.4
Nova Scotia
12 .5
6 .5
28 .1
Newfoundland and Labrador
11 .4
6 .2
30 .0
Quebec
10 .8
3 .9
22 .1
Alberta
10 .7
6 .4
23 .2
Manitoba
10 .3
5 .8
22 .0
New Brunswick
9 .9
5 .5
24 .3
Prince Edward Island
9 .2
5 .5
19 .7
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs)
less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-3

Page 30
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-28
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions, Canada and Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 20111
Number of
households
(thousands)
Number of
households in
core housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing need
(%)
For households in core housing need
Average
household income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter cost
($)
Average STIR
before taxes
(%)
Vancouver
815
145
17 .7
26,227
12,468
50 .2
Toronto
1,865
316
16 .9
28,329
13,380
50 .0
Victoria
142
21
14 .7
24,009
11,400
50 .8
Barrie
65
9
14 .0
27,469
13,284
50 .7
Abbotsford - Mission
55
8
14 .0
26,897
12,252
49 .7
Brantford
49
7
13 .4
20,717
9,912
50 .8
All CMAs
8,584
1,146
13.4
23,541
11,148
50.4
Montréal
1,527
204
13 .3
17,730
8,496
51 .5
Peterborough
46
6
13 .2
23,966
10,752
48 .2
Halifax
157
20
13 .0
20,651
9,576
50 .6
London
184
24
12 .9
20,566
9,612
49 .8
Kingston
62
8
12 .7
22,046
10,224
49 .2
Canada
12,462
1,552
12.5
22,833
10,476
49.4
Saskatoon
99
12
12 .4
22,769
10,824
50 .8
Kelowna
66
8
12 .2
22,149
11,688
54 .1
Regina
82
10
12 .0
24,633
10,524
47 .2
St . John's
76
9
11 .9
20,015
9,324
48 .9
St . Catharines - Niagara
154
18
11 .6
20,514
9,792
50 .5
Hamilton
270
31
11 .3
21,245
10,080
50 .2
Edmonton
425
48
11 .3
25,576
12,264
51 .1
Windsor
120
14
11 .3
19,092
8,868
49 .3
Saint John
50
5
10 .8
16,904
7,704
47 .7
Ottawa - Gatineau
477
51
10 .7
23,632
10,968
49 .7
Oshawa
124
13
10 .5
23,845
11,724
51 .4
Thunder Bay
50
5
10 .5
19,159
8,496
47 .6
Guelph
52
5
10 .4
23,015
10,764
49 .8
Winnipeg
279
29
10 .3
20,519
8,688
46 .8
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo
174
18
10 .3
22,179
10,632
50 .6
Calgary
440
44
10 .1
26,181
13,008
52 .0
Greater Sudbury/Grand Sudbury
65
6
10 .0
20,013
8,964
48 .1
Sherbrooke
88
9
9 .8
13,938
6,744
51 .8
Moncton
56
5
9 .5
18,556
8,832
49 .8
Québec
334
29
8 .6
15,903
7,812
51 .5
Trois-Rivières
67
6
8 .2
12,526
6,012
50 .8
Saguenay
67
4
5 .9
13,016
6,504
52 .5
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-4

Page 31
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-29
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions by tenure, Canada and Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 20111
Incidence of core housing need
(%)
Owners
Renters
Canada
6.5
26.4
All CMAs
6.6
27.1
St . John's
4 .8
29 .8
Halifax
5 .4
26 .7
Moncton
4 .2
22 .7
Saint John
5 .1
25 .2
Saguenay
1 .8
13 .5
Québec
2 .7
17 .7
Sherbrooke
2 .3
19 .3
Trois-Rivières
2 .4
16 .5
Montréal
4 .1
25 .2
Ottawa - Gatineau
4 .4
24 .7
Kingston
4 .9
29 .2
Peterborough
6 .3
33 .2
Oshawa
5 .8
29 .8
Toronto
10 .1
32 .4
Hamilton
5 .0
27 .8
St . Catharines - Niagara
5 .5
29 .9
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo
4 .4
24 .8
Brantford
5 .9
35 .2
Guelph
5 .1
25 .3
London
5 .2
28 .9
Windsor
5 .1
28 .9
Barrie
8 .5
35 .5
Greater Sudbury/Grand Sudbury
3 .5
24 .2
Thunder Bay
5 .1
25 .1
Winnipeg
4 .7
23 .1
Regina
5 .0
30 .2
Saskatoon
5 .5
28 .9
Calgary
6 .1
22 .1
Edmonton
5 .8
25 .5
Kelowna
7 .5
27 .6
Abbotsford - Mission
8 .3
31 .5
Vancouver
10 .8
31 .7
Victoria
7 .0
29 .7
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less
than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-5

Page 32
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-30
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions by household type, 20111
Household type
Number of
households
(thousands)
Number of
households in
core housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing need
(%)
For households in core housing need
Average
household income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter cost
($)
Average STIR
before taxes
(%)
All households
12,462
1,552
12 .5
22,833
10,476
49 .4
Family
8,641
774
9 .0
28,269
12,492
47 .6
One family
8,396
756
9 .0
27,958
12,432
47 .8
Couple with children
3,761
266
7 .1
32,141
14,412
48 .5
Couple without children
3,383
163
4 .8
24,075
11,196
49 .2
Lone parent
1,252
328
26 .2
26,496
11,436
46 .5
Female lone parent
995
286
28 .7
26,432
11,388
46 .4
Male lone parent
257
42
16 .5
26,922
11,748
47 .1
Multiple family
244
18
7 .2
41,677
15,096
40 .0
Non family
3,822
779
20 .4
17,433
8,484
51 .1
One person
3,323
718
21 .6
16,651
8,244
51 .6
Female
1,834
431
23 .5
17,113
8,412
50 .9
Male
1,489
288
19 .3
15,961
7,992
52 .6
Two-or-more-person
499
60
12 .1
26,736
11,400
45 .8
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-6

Page 33
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-31
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions by selected household1 type, Canada and Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs), 2011
Incidence of core housing need (%)
Family Households
Non family
households
All
Couple2
Lone parent
Multiple family
Canada
9.0
6.0
26.2
7.2
20.4
All CMAs
10.0
6.8
27.4
7.3
20.9
St . John's
8 .2
4 .1
29 .9
0 .0
21 .4
Halifax
8 .7
4 .6
31 .0
8 .1
21 .7
Moncton
5 .8
2 .7
25 .6
0 .0
17 .6
Saint John
6 .5
3 .2
23 .3
0 .0
21 .1
Saguenay
3 .3
1 .6
14 .2
0 .0
11 .5
Québec
3 .6
2 .2
12 .7
4 .1
16 .9
Sherbrooke
5 .7
3 .2
19 .5
0 .0
16 .3
Trois-Rivières
4 .8
2 .1
18 .5
0 .0
13 .5
Montréal
8 .4
5 .3
22 .8
6 .6
22 .5
Ottawa - Gatineau
7 .7
4 .8
23 .8
6 .4
17 .0
Kingston
8 .0
4 .4
29 .1
3 .8
22 .5
Peterborough
9 .5
5 .6
33 .1
6 .8
21 .7
Oshawa
7 .5
4 .4
24 .5
4 .2
20 .6
Toronto
14 .5
11 .2
33 .1
8 .9
24 .0
Hamilton
8 .0
4 .8
25 .1
3 .5
19 .5
St . Catharines - Niagara
8 .1
4 .7
26 .0
1 .4
19 .7
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo
7 .3
4 .4
24 .7
4 .0
18 .2
Brantford
7 .8
4 .1
27 .2
2 .1
28 .2
Guelph
7 .2
4 .6
23 .5
3 .7
18 .5
London
9 .0
5 .3
28 .9
3 .5
21 .0
Windsor
8 .9
4 .7
28 .4
2 .3
17 .0
Barrie
11 .2
7 .2
32 .8
8 .3
22 .9
Greater Sudbury/Grand Sudbury
6 .8
3 .9
22 .9
0 .0
17 .2
Thunder Bay
6 .8
3 .2
23 .7
4 .9
17 .8
Winnipeg
8 .3
4 .7
26 .3
8 .5
14 .3
Regina
9 .4
4 .8
31 .7
17 .3
17 .3
Saskatoon
9 .0
5 .1
31 .3
12 .1
19 .2
Calgary
7 .7
5 .7
22 .1
5 .9
15 .6
Edmonton
8 .2
5 .2
26 .4
5 .0
18 .6
Kelowna
8 .5
5 .6
29 .9
4 .8
21 .0
Abbotsford - Mission
11 .5
7 .9
36 .4
7 .1
21 .1
Vancouver
14 .0
11 .0
35 .2
7 .4
25 .9
Victoria
9 .5
5 .9
32 .4
5 .0
23 .1
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
2 Includes couples with and without children .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-7

Page 34
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-32
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions by household type, tenure, and presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011
Household type
Tenure
Number of
households1
(thousands)
Number of
households1
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
For households1 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
All households
Owned
8,712
563
6 .5
25,632
12,336
50 .5
Mortgaged
5,059
336
6 .6
29,866
16,236
57 .8
Not mortgaged
3,654
227
6 .2
19,354
6,540
39 .7
Rented
3,750
989
26 .4
21,242
9,420
48 .7
Family
Owned
6,827
332
4 .9
30,395
14,676
51 .1
Mortgaged
4,160
239
5 .7
33,458
17,772
56 .1
Not mortgaged
2,667
94
3 .5
22,580
6,768
38 .3
Rented
1,813
442
24 .3
26,670
10,836
44 .9
Couple
Owned
5,908
218
3 .7
30,326
14,904
51 .9
Mortgaged
3,549
154
4 .3
33,805
18,264
57 .0
Not mortgaged
2,359
64
2 .7
21,990
6,840
39 .5
Rented
1,237
210
17 .0
27,785
11,412
45 .5
Lone parent
Owned
713
103
14 .5
29,416
13,944
50 .2
Mortgaged
464
77
16 .6
31,705
16,464
54 .9
Not mortgaged
249
26
10 .6
22,762
6,612
36 .5
Rented
538
225
41 .7
25,151
10,272
44 .8
Multiple family
Owned
206
11
5 .2
41,330
17,280
44 .5
Mortgaged
147
8
5 .3
43,899
21,096
50 .5
Not mortgaged
59
3
4 .8
34,262
6,732
27 .8
Rented
38
7
17 .9
42,215
11,664
33 .0
Non family
Owned
1,885
231
12 .2
18,776
8,952
49 .6
Mortgaged
899
98
10 .9
21,080
12,480
61 .8
Not mortgaged
987
133
13 .5
17,089
6,384
40 .6
Rented
1,937
548
28 .3
16,867
8,292
51 .8
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-8

Page 35
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-33
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions by age of primary household maintainer,1 Canada, 2011
Age of primary
household maintainer
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
Distribution
of households2
in core
housing need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
Non-senior households
(15 to 64 years)
9,574
1,158
12 .1
74 .6
23,427
10,836
50 .5
15 to 29
1,172
177
15 .1
11 .4
22,866
10,584
50 .4
30 to 44
3,214
401
12 .5
25 .8
26,060
11,916
50 .0
45 to 64
5,188
580
11 .2
37 .4
21,777
10,176
50 .8
Senior households
(65 years and older)
2,888
394
13 .7
25 .4
21,090
9,432
46 .2
All households
12,462
1,552
12 .5
100 .0
22,833
10,476
49 .4
All figures are rounded .
1 A household maintainer is the person or one of the people in the household responsible for major household payments such as the rent or mortgage . Where
more than one person in a household claims responsibility for such payments, the primary maintainer is the first person listed on the survey form as a maintainer .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-9

Page 36
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-34
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions by age of primary household maintainer,1 tenure,
and presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011
Age of primary
household
maintainer
Tenure
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
All ages
Owned
8,712
563
6 .5
25,632
12,336
50 .5
Mortgaged
5,059
336
6 .6
29,866
16,236
57 .8
Not mortgaged
3,654
227
6 .2
19,354
6,540
39 .7
Rented
3,750
989
26 .4
21,242
9,420
48 .7
Non-senior
households
Owned
6,586
388
5 .9
26,993
13,440
52 .9
Mortgaged
4,566
267
5 .9
31,080
16,812
57 .7
Not mortgaged
2,020
121
6 .0
17,965
5,976
42 .2
Rented
2,988
770
25 .8
21,628
9,528
49 .2
15 to 29
Owned
454
26
5 .7
27,315
14,136
55 .4
Mortgaged
391
21
5 .3
29,581
16,236
58 .9
Not mortgaged
63
5
8 .6
18,754
6,216
42 .3
Rented
717
151
21 .0
22,099
9,972
49 .6
30 to 44
Owned
2,163
125
5 .8
30,714
15,660
54 .3
Mortgaged
1,860
102
5 .5
33,053
17,760
57 .4
Not mortgaged
303
22
7 .4
20,066
6,120
40 .6
Rented
1,052
276
26 .3
23,957
10,212
48 .0
45 to 64
Owned
3,968
237
6 .0
25,001
12,192
51 .9
Mortgaged
2,315
144
6 .2
29,895
16,212
57 .9
Not mortgaged
1,653
93
5 .6
17,411
5,928
42 .5
Rented
1,219
342
28 .1
19,542
8,772
50 .1
Senior
households
(65+)
Owned
2,127
175
8 .2
22,604
9,876
45 .1
Mortgaged
493
69
14 .0
25,153
14,016
57 .9
Not mortgaged
1,634
106
6 .5
20,944
7,188
36 .8
Rented
762
220
28 .9
19,888
9,072
47 .0
All figures are rounded .
1 A household maintainer is the person or one of the people in the household responsible for major household payments such as the rent or mortgage . Where
more than one person in a household claims responsibility for such payments, the primary maintainer is the first person listed on the survey form as a maintainer .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-10

Page 37
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-35
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions of senior1 households by tenure and household type, Canada, 2011
Tenure
Household type
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
Owners
All senior households
2,127
175
8 .2
22,604
9,876
45 .1
Family
1,404
55
3 .9
29,604
12,432
43 .5
Couple
1,214
38
3 .1
29,352
12,636
44 .5
Lone parent
150
15
10 .2
28,675
11,532
41 .8
Multiple family
41
2
4 .4
42,768
15,816
39 .4
Non family
722
120
16 .6
19,397
8,712
45 .8
Renters
All senior households
762
220
28 .9
19,888
9,072
47 .0
Family
235
33
14 .0
28,111
11,160
41 .9
Couple
183
19
10 .4
27,468
11,328
42 .9
Lone parent
46
13
28 .3
28,119
10,872
41 .1
Multiple family
6
1
12 .9
45,036
11,772
31 .7
Non family
527
187
35 .5
18,448
8,712
47 .9
All senior households
2,888
394
13 .7
21,090
9,432
46 .2
All figures are rounded .
1 A senior household is a household whose primary maintainer is 65 years old or older . A household maintainer is the person or one of the people in the
household responsible for major household payments such as the rent or mortgage . Where more than one person in a household claims responsibility
for such payments, the primary maintainer is the first person listed on the survey form as a maintainer .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-11

Page 38
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-36
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions of off-reserve Aboriginal1 and Non-Aboriginal
households by household type, Canada, 2011
Aboriginal
status
Household type
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of households2
in core housing need
(thousands)
Incidence of core
housing need
(%)
Distribution of
households in core
housing need
(%)
All households
12,462
1,552
12 .5
100 .0
Aboriginal
households
All types
503
96
19 .0
6 .2
Family households
387
63
16 .3
4 .1
Couple
290
27
9 .4
1 .8
Lone parent
83
33
40 .4
2 .1
Multiple family
14
2
17 .2
0 .2
Non family
116
33
28 .2
2 .1
Non-Aboriginal
households
All types
11,959
1,456
12 .2
93 .8
Family households
8,253
710
8 .6
45 .8
Couple
6,854
401
5 .8
25 .8
Lone parent
1,169
295
25 .2
19 .0
Multiple family
230
15
6 .5
1 .0
Non family
3,706
746
20 .1
48 .0
All figures are rounded .
1 An Aboriginal household is defined by CMHC as one of the following:
a) A non-family household in which at least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal; or
b) A family household that meets at least one of two criteria:
At least one spouse, common-law partner, or lone parent self-identified as an Aboriginal; or
At least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal .
A person self-identifies as being Aboriginal . Aboriginal identities include North American Indians (both status and non-status), Métis and Inuit .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-12

Page 39
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-37
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions of off-reserve Aboriginal1 and Non-Aboriginal households
by household type and tenure, Canada, 2011
Aboriginal
status
Household type
Tenure
Incidence
of core
housing need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average household
income before taxes
($)
Average
shelter cost
($)
Average STIR
before taxes
(%)
All households
Owners
6 .5
25,632
12,336
50 .5
Renters
26 .4
21,242
9,420
48 .7
Aboriginal
households
All households
Owners
7 .9
29,168
11,136
43 .5
Renters
34 .7
24,428
9,144
45 .0
Family households
Owners
6 .7
32,534
12,252
43 .0
Renters
34 .0
28,817
9,840
41 .5
Couple
Owners
4 .8
31,781
12,120
43 .5
Renters
21 .9
31,544
10,080
40 .2
Lone parent
Owners
20 .4
31,653
12,648
44 .3
Renters
51 .8
25,444
9,756
43 .4
Multiple family
Owners
7 .9
49,555
10,908
27 .0
Renters
36 .2
55,221
8,820
23 .3
Non family
Owners
14 .8
20,137
8,136
44 .6
Renters
36 .0
16,745
7,920
51 .3
Non-Aboriginal
households
All households
Owners
6 .4
25,479
12,384
50 .8
Renters
25 .9
20,990
9,444
49 .0
Family households
Owners
4 .8
30,280
14,808
51 .5
Renters
23 .6
26,419
10,944
45 .4
Couple
Owners
3 .7
30,255
15,036
52 .3
Renters
16 .7
27,449
11,520
46 .0
Lone parent
Owners
14 .2
29,276
14,028
50 .6
Renters
40 .6
25,110
10,344
45 .0
Multiple family
Owners
5 .0
40,696
17,760
45 .8
Renters
15 .4
37,944
12,600
36 .2
Non family
Owners
12 .2
18,738
8,976
49 .7
Renters
28 .0
16,874
8,316
51 .8
All figures are rounded .
1 An Aboriginal household is defined by CMHC as one of the following:
a) A non-family household in which at least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal; or
b) A family household that meets at least one of two criteria:
At least one spouse, common-law partner, or lone parent self-identified as an Aboriginal; or
At least 50% of household members self-identified as Aboriginal .
A person self-identifies as being Aboriginal . Aboriginal identities include North American Indians (both status and non-status), Métis and Inuit .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-13

Page 40
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
1-38
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions by immigrant status of the primary household maintainer,1
period of immigration and tenure, Canada, 2011
Immigrant status
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2 in
core housing need
(thousands)
Incidence of
core housing
need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average household
income before taxes
($)
Average
shelter cost
($)
Average STIR
before taxes
(%)
Non-immigrants
9,511
1,042
11 .0
21,094
9,624
49 .3
Owners
6,696
356
5 .3
23,534
10,860
49 .2
Renters
2,815
686
24 .4
19,827
8,976
49 .3
Non-permanent residents3
92
23
25 .4
24,025
11,544
52 .7
Owners
20
3
14 .6
29,212
15,372
55 .6
Renters
72
20
28 .3
23,282
10,992
52 .3
Immigrants4
2,860
487
17 .0
26,500
12,276
49 .4
Owners
1,996
204
10 .2
29,244
14,856
52 .6
Renters
863
283
32 .8
24,523
10,404
47 .1
Period of immigration
Prior to 1986
1,407
182
12 .9
23,440
11,052
49 .3
Owners
1,121
92
8 .2
25,111
12,204
50 .0
Renters
286
89
31 .3
21,715
9,864
48 .5
1986 to 1995
579
106
18 .3
28,569
13,092
48 .9
Owners
397
47
12 .0
32,143
16,368
53 .3
Renters
182
58
31 .9
25,657
10,416
45 .3
1996 to 2000
278
52
18 .9
29,623
13,752
49 .4
Owners
186
23
12 .4
33,601
17,676
55 .1
Renters
92
29
31 .9
26,506
10,656
44 .9
2001 to 2005
315
64
20 .3
29,175
13,428
49 .4
Owners
187
24
12 .7
33,625
17,916
55 .9
Renters
128
40
31 .3
26,546
10,764
45 .5
2006 to 20115
281
83
29 .6
26,521
12,084
50 .2
Owners
106
17
16 .3
31,495
16,848
56 .5
Renters
175
66
37 .6
25,210
10,812
48 .5
All households
12,462
1,552
12 .5
22,833
10,476
49 .4
Owners
8,712
563
6 .5
25,632
12,336
50 .5
Renters
3,750
989
26 .4
21,242
9,420
48 .7
All figures are rounded .
1 A household maintainer is the person or one of the people in the household responsible for major household payments such as the rent or mortgage . Where
more than one person in a household claims responsibility for such payments, the primary maintainer is the first person listed on the survey form as a maintainer .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
3 Non-permanent resident households include households whose primary maintainer is from another country, who has a work or study permit or who is a refugee
claimant, and any non-Canadian-born family member living in Canada with them .
4 Immigrant households include households whose primary maintainer has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities .
5 Includes January 1, 2006 to May 10, 2011 .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-14

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CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions by household income quintile,1 Canada, 2011
Income quintile
Income range ($)
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
All households2
All incomes
12,462
1,552
12.5
Highest
117,161 and up
2,492
0
0 .0
128,540
11,292
8 .8
Upper
78,209 to 117,160
2,492
2
0 .1
92,168
13,416
14.9
Middle
52,354 to 78,208
2,493
24
1 .0
58,383
17,532
30 .4
Moderate
31,599 to 52,353
2,493
268
10 .8
39,255
15,768
40 .5
Lowest
Up to 31,598
2,493
1,257
50 .4
18,491
9,216
51 .7
All figures are rounded .
1 Households were ranked by their before-tax household income and divided into five equally-sized groups (quintiles) . For descriptive purposes, these groups are
referred to as follows: lowest-income, moderate-income, middle-income, upper-income, and highest-income .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-15

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1-40
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Housing conditions of household by household income quintile,1
tenure, and presence of mortgage, Canada, 2011
Income quintile
Tenure
Number of
households2
(thousands)
Number of
households2
in core
housing need
(thousands)
Incidence
of core
housing
need
(%)
For households2 in core housing need
Average
household
income
before taxes
($)
Average
shelter
cost
($)
Average
STIR
before taxes
(%)
Middle
Owners
1,831
16
0 .8
58,189
19,680
34 .2
Owners with mortgage
1,099
13
1 .2
57,929
22,524
39 .2
Owners without mortgage
731
3
0 .4
59,436
6,024
10 .3
Renters
662
9
1 .3
58,723
13,752
23 .7
Moderate
Owners
1,494
140
9 .3
39,809
18,168
46 .1
Owners with mortgage
734
120
16 .3
39,948
19,944
50 .4
Owners without mortgage
760
20
2 .6
38,956
7,320
19 .4
Renters
998
129
12 .9
38,654
13,152
34 .4
Lowest
Owners
998
407
40 .7
19,367
10,032
52 .7
Owners with mortgage
324
203
62 .6
21,896
13,620
63 .4
Owners without mortgage
675
204
30 .3
16,857
6,468
42 .0
Renters
1,494
850
56 .9
18,073
8,820
51 .2
All figures are rounded .
1 Households were ranked by their before-tax household income and divided into five equally-sized groups (quintiles) . For descriptive purposes, these groups
are referred to as follows: lowest-income, moderate-income, middle-income, upper-income, and highest-income .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-16

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CHAPTER ONE – ANNEX
Housing conditions, Canada, and urban areas, 1991-2011
All Households1
Living in Acceptable
Housing1
Living in housing below one or more standards1
Able to access
acceptable housing
Unable to access
acceptable housing
- in core housing need
Source
Year
Total
(thousands)
Per cent
Total
(thousands)
Per cent
Total
(thousands)
Per cent
Total
(thousands)
Per cent4
Canada
NHS
2011
12,462
100
8,620
69 .2
2,291
18 .4
1,552
12 .5
Census
2006
11,766
100
8,177
69 .5
2,095
17 .8
1,494
12 .7
2001
10,806
100
7,557
69 .9
1,764
16 .3
1,485
13 .7
1996
10,028
100
6,799
67 .8
1,662
16 .6
1,567
15 .6
1991
9,372
100
6,533
69 .7
1,569
16 .7
1,270
13 .6
CMA/CA2
NHS
2011
10,295
100
7,013
68 .1
1,959
19 .0
1,321
12 .8
Census
2006
9,612
100
6,578
68 .4
1,772
18 .4
1,262
13 .1
2001
8,736
100
6,033
69 .1
1,456
16 .7
1,247
14 .3
1996
7,994
100
5,331
66 .7
1,365
17 .1
1,299
16 .3
1991
7,466
100
5,137
68 .8
1,283
17 .2
1,046
14 .0
CMA/CA2
SLID3
2011
10,920
100
7,282
66 .7
2,145
19 .6
1,493
13 .7B
2010
10,723
100
7,210
67 .2
2,102
19 .6
1,410
13 .2B
2009
10,552
100
7,120
67 .5
2,043
19 .3
1,389
13 .2B
2008
10,479
100
7,043
67 .2
2,099
20 .0
1,337
12 .8B
2007
10,278
100
6,950
67 .6
2,084
20 .3
1,243
12 .1B
2006
10,113
100
6,869
67 .9
1,950
19 .0
1,295
12 .8B
2005
10,018
100
6,842
68 .3
1,836
18 .2
1,340
13 .4B
2004
9,643
100
6,747
69 .9
1,587
16 .5
1,309
13 .6B
2003
9,532
100
6,654
69 .8
1,556
16 .3
1,322
13 .9B
2002
9,429
100
6,567
69 .7
1,549
16 .4
1,312
13 .9B
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Urban areas comprise Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and Census Agglomerations (CAs), excluding the territories .
2 Household counts for CMAs and CAs do not include Whitehorse, YK and Yellowknife, NT . SLID-based estimates for 2002-2005 are based on 2001 Census
geography, and for 2006-2011 are based on 2006 census geography .
3 SLID-based estimates are for urban households . Urban households are households living in Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) and provincial Census
Agglomerations (CAs) .
4 Letters indicate quality of the SLID-based estimates (see text box Data sources used to estimate housing need - Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics
on page 1-23) .
The numbers shown for households in CMAs/CAs based on the Census and on SLID are not comparable . SLID reflects Statistics Canada’s estimates of the
total number of households, and these are higher than the numbers of households counted by the Census/NHS, since inevitably not every household is counted
by the Census/NHS .
Source: CMHC (Census- (1991-2006), NHS- (2011) and SLID- (2002-2011) based housing indicators and data)
TABLE 1-17

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Figure 1-2: Household real1 median income before tax, and unemployment rate, Canada, 1990-2011
Year
Unemployment rate (%)
Household real1 median income before-tax
(2011 constant dollars)
1990
8 .1
58,600
1991
10 .3
55,300
1992
11 .2
55,200
1993
11 .4
53,300
1994
10 .4
54,200
1995
9 .5
53,900
1996
9 .6
53,400
1997
9 .1
52,800
1998
8 .3
54,500
1999
7 .6
56,300
2000
6 .8
57,100
2001
7 .2
57,800
2002
7 .7
57,800
2003
7 .6
57,700
2004
7 .2
58,000
2005
6 .8
59,100
2006
6 .3
60,900
2007
6 .0
61,900
2008
6 .1
63,000
2009
8 .3
62,500
2010
8 .0
61,800
2011
7 .4
62,000
All figures are rounded .
1 Inflation adjusted .
Source: Statistics Canada (Survey of Consumer Finances (1990-1993); Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1994-1997);
Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1998-2011), CANSIM)
Figure 1-1: Housing conditions, Canada, 2001-20111
Year
Households in core
housing need
Households not living in, but able
to access, acceptable housing
Households living in
acceptable housing
(#)
(%)
(#)
(%)
(#)
(%)
2001
1,485,335
13 .7
1,763,615
16 .3
7,556,660
69 .9
2006
1,494,395
12 .7
2,094,725
17 .8
8,177,025
69 .5
2011
1,552,145
12 .5
2,290,790
18 .4
8,619,500
69 .2
Per cents may not add up to 100 due to rounding .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Alternative text and data for figures

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CHAPTER ONE
Figure 1-3: Households1 in core housing need by housing standard(s) not met, Canada, 2011
Housing standard(s) not met
Per cent
Affordability only
73 .3
Affordability and adequacy
8 .2
Affordability and suitability
7 .2
Suitability only
4 .4
Adequacy only
5 .2
Suitability and adequacy
0 .7
Affordability, suitability and adequacy
1 .0
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-4: Households1 in core housing need by shelter-cost-to-income ratio (STIR), Canada, 2011
Shelter-cost-to-income ratio
Per cent
Less than 30%
10 .3
Greater than or equal to 30% but less than 50%
47 .5
Greater than or equal to 50% but less than 100%
42 .2
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-5: Households1 in core housing need by bedroom shortfall, Canada, 2011
Bedroom shortfall
Per cent
No-bedroom shortfall (not crowded)
86 .7
One-bedroom shortfall
10 .6
Two-bedroom shortfall
2 .2
Three-or-more-bedroom shortfall
0 .5
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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Figure 1-6: Incidence of core housing need by Province and Territory, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Geography
2001
2006
2011
(%)
(%)
(%)
Canada
13 .7
12 .7
12 .5
Newfoundland and Labrador
14 .6
14 .2
11 .4
Prince Edward Island
12 .9
12 .6
9 .2
Nova Scotia
15 .2
12 .1
12 .5
New Brunswick
11 .2
10 .3
9 .9
Quebec
12 .5
10 .6
10 .8
Ontario
15 .1
14 .5
13 .4
Manitoba
11 .6
11 .3
10 .3
Saskatchewan
11 .5
11 .8
13 .2
Alberta
10 .5
10 .1
10 .7
British Columbia
15 .8
14 .6
15 .4
Yukon
15 .8
16 .3
14 .6
Northwest Territories
17 .4
17 .5
15 .7
Nunavut
38 .8
37 .3
39 .3
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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CHAPTER ONE
Figure 1-7: Incidence of core housing need by Census Metropolitan Area, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Geography
2001
2006
2011
(%)
(%)
(%)
Vancouver
17 .3
17 .0
17 .7
Toronto
19 .1
19 .0
16 .9
Victoria
13 .4
12 .4
14 .7
Barrie
14 .2
13 .5
14 .0
Abbotsford - Mission
11 .5
12 .9
13 .9
Brantford
15 .9
11 .4
13 .4
All-CMAs
14 .7
13 .6
13 .4
Montréal
14 .1
12 .6
13 .3
Peterborough
13 .2
14 .0
13 .2
Halifax
16 .3
13 .6
13 .0
London
13 .2
12 .8
12 .9
Kingston
15 .0
12 .7
12 .7
Canada
13 .7
12 .7
12 .5
Saskatoon
10 .7
9 .3
12 .4
Kelowna
11 .8
11 .1
12 .2
Regina
10 .1
9 .6
12 .0
St . John's
13 .5
13 .5
11 .9
St . Catharines - Niagara
12 .9
12 .2
11 .6
Hamilton
13 .7
12 .9
11 .3
Edmonton
10 .9
10 .6
11 .3
Windsor
12 .8
12 .7
11 .3
Ottawa
14 .5
12 .7
11 .1
Saint John
11 .2
9 .6
10 .8
Ottawa - Gatineau
13 .7
12 .1
10 .7
Oshawa
12 .0
11 .6
10 .5
Thunder Bay
11 .9
10 .9
10 .5
Guelph
10 .7
11 .8
10 .4
Winnipeg
10 .8
10 .4
10 .3
Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo
11 .6
10 .3
10 .3
Calgary
11 .2
9 .0
10 .1
Greater Sudbury/Grand Sudbury
12 .4
10 .0
10 .0
Sherbrooke
12 .0
9 .5
9 .8
Gatineau
11 .0
10 .3
9 .6
Moncton
10 .8
10 .8
9 .5
Québec
12 .3
9 .3
8 .6
Trois-Rivières
12 .9
12 .3
8 .2
Saguenay
11 .2
8 .2
5 .9
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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Figure 1-8: Incidence of core housing need by housing tenure, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Owners
Renters
(%)
(%)
2001
6 .6
28 .3
2006
6 .3
27 .2
2011
6 .5
26 .4
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-9: Distribution of core housing need by housing tenure, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Owners
Renters
(%)
(%)
2001
31 .9
68 .1
2006
34 .3
65 .7
2011
36 .3
63 .7
May not add up to 100 due to rounding .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-10: Incidence of core housing need and average STIR for owner households by mortgage status,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Incidence of
core housing need
Average STIR for households
not in core housing need
Average STIR for households
in core housing need
With a
mortgage
Without a
mortgage
With a
mortgage
Without a
mortgage
With a
mortgage
Without a
mortgage
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
2001
6 .6
6 .5
21 .0
9 .7
55 .8
37 .5
2006
6 .5
6 .0
21 .7
9 .9
57 .2
38 .9
2011
6 .6
6 .2
21 .7
9 .8
57 .8
39 .7
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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CHAPTER ONE
Figure 1-11: Incidence of core housing need by household type, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Household type
2001
2006
2011
(%)
(%)
(%)
All households
13 .7
12 .7
12 .5
Family households
9 .8
9 .2
9 .0
One-family households
9 .8
9 .2
9 .0
Couples without children
5 .6
5 .1
4 .8
Couples with children
7 .2
7 .1
7 .1
Lone-parent households
29 .2
26 .5
26 .2
Female lone-parent households
32 .0
29 .2
28 .7
Male lone-parent households
16 .8
15 .2
16 .5
Multiple-family households
8 .8
8 .4
7 .2
Non-family households
23 .5
21 .1
20 .4
One-person households
25 .1
22 .3
21 .6
Female one-person households
28 .3
24 .8
23 .5
Male one-person households
20 .8
19 .2
19 .3
Two or more person households
13 .1
12 .1
12 .1
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-12: Distribution of all households1 and of those in core housing need by household type, Canada, 2011
Household type
Share of all households (%)
Share of households in core housing need (%)
Couple
57
28
Lone parent
10
21
Multiple family
2
1
Non family
31
50
All figures are rounded .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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Figure 1-13: Incidence of core housing need by age of the primary household maintainer,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Incidence of core housing need
15-29 years
30-44 years
45-64 years
65 years old or older
(senior households)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
2001
18 .6
13 .1
11 .1
16 .9
2006
16 .0
12 .9
10 .9
14 .4
2011
15 .1
12 .5
11 .2
13 .7
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-14: Distribution of core housing need by age of the primary household maintainer,
Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Distribution of core housing need
15-29 years
30-44 years
45-64 years
65 years old or older
(senior households)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
2001
14
31
29
26
2006
12
29
34
25
2011
11
26
37
25
May not add up to 100 due to rounding .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-15: Incidence of core housing need for off-reserve Aboriginal households, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Off-reserve Aboriginal households
Non-Aboriginal households
(%)
(%)
2001
24 .0
13 .5
2006
20 .4
12 .4
2011
19 .0
12 .2
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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CHAPTER ONE
Figure 1-16: Incidence of core housing need by identity1 of off-reserve Aboriginal households, Canada, 20112
Aboriginal household identity
Incidence of core housing need
(%)
All off-reserve Aboriginal households
19 .0
Status Indian households
23 .4
Non-status Indian households
18 .6
Métis households
15 .3
Inuit households
33 .6
1 The Aboriginal identity of households is based on the identification reported for each of its members . If at least one member of an Aboriginal household identifies
as being Inuit, Métis, a Non-status Indian, or Status Indian the household is counted in that group . A household can be counted in more than one Aboriginal group .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-17: Incidence of core housing need by immigrant status of the household, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20111
Year
Immigrant households
Non-immigrant households
(%)
(%)
2001
18 .3
12 .4
2006
18 .2
11 .0
2011
17 .0
11 .0
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-18: Incidence of core housing need by immigrant status and period of immigration
of the household, Canada, 20111
Immigrant status and period of immigration of the household
Incidence of core housing need
(%)
Non-immigrant households
11 .0
Non-permanent resident households
25 .4
All immigrant households
17 .0
Immigrated before 1986
12 .9
Immigrated between 1986 and 1995
18 .3
Immigrated between 1996 and 2000
18 .9
Immigrated between 2001 and 2005
20 .3
Immigrated between 2006 and 2011
29 .6
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)

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Figure 1-20: Distribution of households1 in core housing need by household income quintile, Canada, 2011
Income quintile
Distribution of households in core housing need
(%)
Upper
0 .1
Middle
1 .6
Moderate
17 .3
Lowest
81 .0
All figures are rounded .
There are no households in core housing need in the highest-income quintile .
1 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (NHS-based housing indicators and data)
Figure 1-19: Incidence of core housing need by income quintile1, Canada, 2001, 2006 and 20112
Year
Low household
income quintile
Moderate household
income quintile
Other household
income quintiles
(%)
(%)
(%)
2001
54 .6
12 .3
0 .6
2006
51 .0
11 .2
0 .4
2011
50 .4
10 .8
0 .4
1 Households were ranked by their before-tax household income and divided into five equally-sized groups (quintiles) . For descriptive purposes, these groups
are referred to as follows: lowest-income, moderate-income, middle-income, upper-income, and highest-income .
2 Includes only private, non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with incomes greater than zero and shelter-cost-to-income ratios (STIRs) less than 100% .
Source: CMHC (Census-based and NHS-based housing indicators and data)

Page 53
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-51
CHAPTER ONE
Annex Figure 1-1: Incidences of urban core housing need based on Census, NHS, and SLID,
Canada and Provinces, 2001-2011
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
Nova Scotia
New Brunswick
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
14 .6
12 .9
15 .2
11 .2
2002
16 .4
10 .6
13 .8
9 .2
2003
15 .7
11 .9
13 .0
9 .7
2004
17 .6
11 .7
13 .5
8 .1
2005
18 .1
12 .4
10 .3
12 .0
2006
15 .0
14 .2
9 .6
12 .6
14 .1
12 .1
11 .5
10 .3
2007
14 .3
7 .0
12 .7
8 .7
2008
16 .1
7 .2
14 .6
7 .2
2009
13 .3
7 .9
14 .6
8 .7
2010
13 .1
10 .8
14 .4
8 .9
2011
9 .2
11 .4
9 .1
9 .2
12 .3
12 .5
7 .6
9 .9
Quebec
Ontario
Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
12 .5
15 .1
11 .6
11 .5
2002
11 .6
15 .5
9 .4
9 .9
2003
11 .6
15 .6
8 .9
10 .2
2004
10 .8
16 .0
9 .9
9 .3
2005
12 .4
15 .4
10 .0
9 .4
2006
11 .3
10 .6
14 .5
14 .5
10 .0
11 .3
9 .9
11 .8
2007
10 .3
13 .7
9 .7
8 .0
2008
10 .7
15 .0
8 .7
10 .4
2009
10 .4
15 .2
9 .1
9 .6
2010
11 .1
14 .6
9 .4
10 .0
2011
10 .9
10 .8
15 .7
13 .4
9 .8
10 .3
10 .2
13 .2
Alberta
British Columbia
Canada
All figures are rounded .
SLID-based data are unavailable
for 2001 .
For information on differences
between SLID-based, Census-based
and NHS-based estimates, see
Data sources used to estimate
housing need on page 1-22 .
Source: CMHC (Census-, NHS-
and SLID-based housing indicators
and data)
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
10 .5
15 .8
13 .7
2002
11 .3
17 .5
13 .9
2003
10 .9
17 .1
13 .9
2004
10 .2
15 .7
13 .6
2005
8 .7
14 .5
13 .4
2006
8 .7
10 .1
14 .5
14 .6
12 .8
12 .7
2007
10 .5
13 .4
12 .1
2008
10 .6
13 .2
12 .8
2009
9 .9
16 .5
13 .2
2010
9 .1
17 .3
13 .2
2011
9 .9
10 .7
18 .2
15 .4
13 .7
12 .5

Page 54
Canadian Housing Observer 2014
CHAPTER ONE
1-52
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
Annex Figure 1-2: Incidences of core housing need based on Census, NHS, and SLID, selected Census
Metropolitan Areas, 2001-2011
Halifax
Québec
Montréal
Ottawa-Gatineau
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
16 .3
12 .3
14 .1
13 .7
2002
14 .9
8 .7
13 .2
12 .4
2003
13 .3
7 .5
13 .4
15 .0
2004
13 .6
8 .9
12 .1
13 .7
2005
9 .9
8 .8
13 .9
13 .6
2006
14 .9
13 .6
7 .9
9 .3
13 .2
12 .6
13 .8
12 .1
2007
12 .1
7 .9
12 .0
10 .3
2008
15 .7
6 .2
12 .9
11 .5
2009
16 .1
4 .0
12 .5
9 .1
2010
15 .7
5 .4
13 .6
10 .5
2011
12 .9
13 .0
6 .4
8 .6
12 .7
13 .3
9 .5
10 .7
Toronto
Winnipeg
Regina
Saskatoon
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
19 .1
10 .8
10 .1
10 .7
2002
18 .5
9 .2
10 .2
12 .0
2003
17 .8
8 .7
10 .1
10 .9
2004
19 .1
9 .9
9 .9
9 .8
2005
18 .8
9 .9
8 .8
12 .0
2006
17 .5
19 .0
10 .1
10 .4
9 .0
9 .6
13 .7
9 .3
2007
16 .7
10 .5
6 .6
10 .0
2008
17 .0
9 .1
9 .0
13 .8
2009
17 .5
9 .3
9 .2
11 .6
2010
17 .9
9 .5
7 .6
13 .2
2011
19 .2
16 .9
9 .7
10 .3
10 .1
12 .0
12 .2
12 .4
Calgary
Edmonton
Vancouver
All figures are rounded .
SLID-based data are unavailable
for 2001 .
For information on differences
between SLID-based, Census-based
and NHS-based estimates, see
Data sources used to estimate
housing need on page 1-22 .
Source: CMHC (Census-, NHS-
and SLID-based housing indicators
and data)
Year
SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%) SLID (%) Census (%) NHS (%)
2001
11 .2
10 .9
17 .3
2002
11 .8
12 .0
19 .4
2003
12 .3
10 .6
18 .1
2004
8 .8
11 .3
17 .4
2005
7 .3
9 .6
15 .1
2006
9 .5
9 .0
8 .3
10 .6
16 .5
17 .0
2007
10 .7
10 .8
14 .8
2008
11 .0
10 .1
15 .5
2009
9 .3
11 .6
19 .9
2010
8 .4
9 .8
20 .1
2011
8 .5
10 .1
12 .8
11 .3
20 .1
17 .7

Page 55
Housing Affordability and Need
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
1-53
CHAPTER ONE
Annex Figure 1-3: Incidence of urban core housing need, median depth of housing need and
Canadian unemployment rate, 2002-2011
Year
Unemployment rate (%)
Percentage of urban households
in core housing need (%)
Median depth of need
(2011 constant dollars)
2002
7 .7
13 .9
2,140
2003
7 .6
13 .9
2,140
2004
7 .2
13 .6
2,180
2005
6 .8
13 .4
2,070
2006
6 .3
12 .8
2,080
2007
6 .0
12 .1
2,010
2008
6 .1
12 .8
2,220
2009
8 .3
13 .2
2,380
2010
8 .0
13 .2
2,030
2011
7 .5
13 .7
2,050
All figures are rounded .
Source: CMHC (SLID-based housing indicators and data); Statistics Canada: Labour Force Survey (2002-2011)

Page 56
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for your multi-unit property
investment. Call 1-877 Multi GO
or visit www.cmhc.ca/multi-unit.
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TAKE A FRESH
LOOK AT WHAT’S
POSSIBLE

Page 57
Observer Online Resource Collection
UPDATED IN 2014
The Observer is backed by a substantial collection of online data resources which have been
updated to include hundreds of tables with the latest available comprehensive information.
Local interactive data tables
containing statistics from over 160 selected municipalities provides a range of housing
information to help professionals make more informed decisions.
EXCEL data tables
containing longer timelines, more geographies and additional topics.
Housing in Canada Online (HiCO)
an interactive web-based tool, incorporates
a selection of CMHC’s data on housing
conditions and core housing need.
With data on census divisions and
metropolitan areas, HiCO allows users
to choose from a number of variables
on household characteristics to create
custom tables.
CANADIAN HOUSING OBSERVER 2014
Visit www.cmhc.ca/observer for easy access to timely, comprehensive
data on Canadian Housing.
www.cmhc.ca
Be kept up-to-date by subscribing to
the CMHC Housing Research E-newsletter at
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