2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Issue 3 — Profile of the Housing Conditions of Canadians Aged 15 Years and Older with a Hearing Disability

Introduction

This Research Highlight is one in a series produced through a CMHC research project that examined the housing conditions and characteristics of Canadians with disabilities.

This highlight begins with some general characteristics of the population with disabilities who are aged 15 years and older, and continues with a detailed profile of those with a hearing disability. Data used in this highlight are from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (2001 PALS). PALS is Canada’s principal national survey focusing on people with disabilities. It provides information on the prevalence and severity of certain types of disability, on the use of and unmet need for supports, and on participation in various activities.

Definitions

Population with Disabilities Examined in this Highlight

This highlight examines the population 15 years of age and older only. The data presented here and in subsequent highlights will differ from the first issue in this series which was based on the 2001 Census because of some key differences between the 2001 Census and 2001 PALS with respect to identifying people with disabilities. The 2001 PALS identifies an estimated 945,000 fewer people aged 15 years and older with a disability than did the 2001 Census. This is because some individuals who responded “Yes” to the Census disability questions responded “No” to the more detailed questions on the 2001 PALS related to specific types of disabilities. It is also due to differences in the geographic coverage — the 2001 Census includes the people living in the territories and in First Nations communities but these areas and their populations are excluded from the 2001 PALS.

Disability in the 2001 PALS

The 2001 PALS asks about specific domains of functioning in which one may experience ongoing difficulties doing activities and identifies 10 specific types of disabilities (as well as an “unknown”1 category):

  • Mobility
  • Agility
  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Speaking/communicating
  • Developmental
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Emotional/psychological
  • Pain

The 2001 PALS includes three ways to look at disability characteristics: type(s) of disability that an individual reports, number of types of disabilities that an individual reports, and a severity measure that includes the nature and extent of the individual’s disability across all the types of disabilities reported by the individual.

Hearing Disability

In the 2001 PALS, an individual with a hearing disability is someone who has difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation with one other person and/or in a conversation with three or more persons and/or in a telephone conversation.

Core Housing Need

Households2 are considered to be in core housing need if they do not live in and do not have sufficient income to access acceptable housing. The term “acceptable housing” refers to housing that is in adequate physical condition, of suitable size and affordable.

  • Adequate dwellings are those reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs.
  • Suitable dwellings have enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households, according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements.3
  • Affordable dwellings cost less than 30% of before-tax household income.4

A household is said to be in core housing need if its housing falls below at least one of the adequacy, suitability or affordability standards and it would have to spend 30% or more of its before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing.

When discussing core housing need, household data exclude farm, band and reserve households (for which shelter costs are not collected by the census). It also excludes households with shelter costs that equal or exceed their income, or incomes of zero or less.

Findings

Persons with a Hearing Disability Aged 15 Years and Older

Close to one third (30%) of persons aged 15 years or older with a disability report a hearing disability (see Table 1). This is over one million people.

Table 1 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older by type of disability, 2001
  Number (%)*
*Percentages add to more than 100% because people can report more than one disability.
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of disabilities 3,352,300 100.0%
Hearing 1,013,700 30.2%
Seeing 586,800 17.5%
Speaking/Communicating 356,300 10.6%
Mobility/agility 2,692,800 80.3%
Pain 2,332,300 69.6%
Learning 442,000 13.2%
Memory 414,900 12.4%
Developmental 117,000 3.5%
Emotional/Psychological 517,700 15.4%
Unknown 94,400 2.8%

Geography

The incidence of hearing disability varies among the ten provinces, with Newfoundland and Labrador showing the highest rates at 36% and Alberta the lowest rate at 28% (see Table 2).

Table 2 Number of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability and relative to any type of disability, Canada and the provinces, 2001
Geography Persons aged 15 years % with a hearing disability
with any type of disability (#) with a hearing disability (#)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada 3,352,300 1,013,700 30.2%
Newfoundland and Labrador 57,500 20,800 36.2%
Prince Edward Island 17,500 6,300 36.0%
Nova Scotia 144,300 48,400 33.5%
New Brunswick 97,500 33,300 34.2%
Quebec 560,100 159,100 28.4%
Ontario 1,413,900 427,300 30.2%
Manitoba 133,400 41,700 31.3%
Saskatchewan 110,100 38,200 34.7%
Alberta 320,200 90,600 28.3%
British Columbia 497,700 147,900 29.7%

Age and Gender

At the national level, persons with a hearing disability are typically older than those reporting any type of disability with an average age of 65 years compared to 59 years respectively. Females with a hearing disability tend to be older than males (66 years compared to 64 years respectively).

Males with disabilities are more likely to report a hearing disability than females (38% compared to 25%, respectively), and this is true in all age groups (see Table 3). For example, over half (51%) of senior men (65 and older) with a disability have a hearing disability compared to less than one third (31%) of senior women. The incidence of hearing disability increases with age for both males and females.

Table 3 Number of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability and relative to any type of disability, by sex and age group
Sex Age group Persons aged 15 years and older % with a hearing disability
with any type of disability (#) with a hearing disability (#)
Source: 2001 PALS
Both sexes 15 years and older 3,352,300 1,013,700 30.2%
15 – 24 years 148,000 19,600 13.2%
25 – 44 years 618,300 107,800 17.4%
45 – 64 years 1,162,700 324,600 27.9%
65 years and older 1,423,200 561,600 39.5%
Male 15 years and older 1,487,800 557,600 37.5%
15 – 24 years 73,000 10,300 14.1%
25 – 44 years 283,900 56,100 19.8%
45 – 64 years 541,400 189,000 34.9%
65 years and older 589,500 302,200 51.3%
Female 15 years and older 1,864,500 456,100 24.5%
15 – 24 years 75,000 9,300 12.4%
25 – 44 years 334,400 51,700 15.5%
45 – 64 years 621,300 135,600 21.8%
65 years and older 833,700 259,500 31.1%

Presence of Other Types of Disabilities

People with a hearing disability are likely to report having other types of disabilities. Only 139,800 or 14% of persons report a hearing disability as their only disability. About 76% (or 774,100) who have a hearing disability also report a mobility/agility disability and 64% (or 650,500) report a limitation in their activity due to pain (see Table 4).

Those who have a hearing disability are more likely to report having a seeing disability, a speaking/communicating disability and a memory disability than persons reporting any type of disability (see Tables 4 and 1).

Table 4 Distribution of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability, by type of other disability, 2001
Types of disabilities Distribution of those with a hearing disability by disability type
(#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Hearing 1,013,700 100.0%
Mobility/agility 774,100 76.4%
Seeing 237,900 23.5%
Speaking/communicating 138,200 13.6%
Developmental 28,900 2.9%
Learning 140,100 13.8%
Emotional/Psychological 141,500 14.0%
Memory 150,400 14.8%
Pain 650,500 64.2%

Severity of Disability

Half (or 508,300) of persons with a hearing disability have a severe or very severe disability compared to 41% of persons reporting any type of disability (see Table 5). About 24% of persons with a hearing disability have a mild disability, compared to 34% of persons reporting any type of disability.

When data on severity are examined by age, the largest difference occurs among persons aged 15 to 24 years. In this age group, 44% (8,600) have a hearing disability that is severe or very severe compared to 31% reporting any type of disability. Among persons aged 45 to 64 years with a hearing disability, 52% (402,200) have a severe or very severe disability compared to 45% reporting any type of disability.

Among the 1,013,700 persons with a hearing disability, 35,600 or 4% cannot hear at all.

Almost one third (32% or 323,700) of persons with a hearing disability use a hearing aid. Within this group, just over half (57% or 183,900) report that when wearing the hearing aid, they still have difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation with one other person and almost all (94% or 303,800) have difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation with at least three other persons. Over two-thirds (69% or 222,400) report that they have difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation on the telephone.

Of the 690,000 persons with a hearing disability who do not use a hearing aid, the majority (71% or 492,400) have difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation with one other person. Almost all (95% or 658,300) report that they have difficulty hearing in a conversation with at least three other persons and 64% or 438,900 report having difficulty hearing what is said in a conversation on the telephone.

Table 5 Number of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability and relative to any type of disability, by severity of disability, 2001
Severity of disability Persons aged 15 years and older

with any type of disability

with a hearing disability
(#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Total 3,352,300 100.0% 1,013,700 100.0%
Mild 1,134,800 33.9% 247,700 24.4%
Moderate 838,800 25.0% 257,700 25.4%
Severe 903,500 27.0% 288,900 28.5%
Very severe 475,100 14.2% 219,400 21.6%

Characteristics of Persons with a Hearing Disability who are Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Geography

At the Canada level, 15% of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability live in a household in core housing need; among persons without disabilities, the incidence is 9% (see Table 6). The incidence of living in core housing need for persons with a hearing disability varies significantly by province, with the lowest incidence in New Brunswick at 8% and the highest in Prince Edward Island at 18%. The difference in the incidence of core housing need between persons with a hearing disability and those individuals without disabilities also varies significantly by province. The largest difference occurs in Prince Edward Island (about 10 percentage points) and the smallest difference is in New Brunswick (about two percentage points).

Table 6 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability, Canada and the provinces, 2001
Geography Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada 147,300 14.5% 563,900 16.8% 1,757,000 9.1%
Newfoundland and Labrador 3,500 16.8% 10,700 18.5% 35,900 10.3%
Prince Edward Island 1,100 17.5% 2,500 14.5% 6,600 7.8%
Nova Scotia 8,000 16.5% 25,100 17.4% 55,000 9.6%
New Brunswick 2,800 8.4% 11,700 12.0% 31,800 6.7%
Quebec 19,200 12.1% 89,200 15.9% 376,300 7.4%
Ontario 65,000 15.2% 247,800 17.5% 772,900 10.5%
Manitoba 5,900 14.1% 17,300 13.0% 40,600 6.6%
Saskatchewan 3,400 8.9% 12,400 11.3% 31,100 6.4%
Alberta 13,100 14.5% 45,100 14.1% 124,800 7.1%
British Columbia 25,200 17.0% 102,000 20.5% 282,100 11.2%

Urban/Rural

The probability of living in a household in core housing need is higher in urban areas than in rural areas regardless of disability status. For persons with a hearing disability, the incidence of living in a household in core housing is 15% in urban areas and 12% in rural areas compared to 10% and 6% respectively for persons without disabilities.

Tenure

The incidence of core housing need is much higher for renters than for owners, and this is no different for persons with a hearing disability. Just under one-third (32%) of persons with a hearing disability who live in rental households are in core housing need compared to 8% of persons with a hearing disability who live in dwellings owned by a member of the family (see Table 7). Persons with a hearing disability that live in a rental accommodation are more likely to be in a household in core housing need (at 32%) than persons without disabilities (at 21%). Those with a hearing disability that live in accommodation that is owned by a family member are more likely to be living in a household in core housing need (at 8%) than persons without disabilities (at 5%).

Table 7 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability, by tenure, 2001
Tenure Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada — All dwellings 147,300 14.5% 563,900 16.8% 1,757,000 9.1%
Owned by a member of the family 54,000 7.5% 202,300 8.9% 673,500 4.8%
Rented 93,300 31.8% 361,600 33.6% 1,083,400 21.1%

Age and Gender

Whereas 48% of persons with a hearing disability are aged 65 years and older, the proportion is 39% among persons reporting any type of disability and 12% among persons without disabilities (see Table 8).

About 59% (or 86,800) of those with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are female. Males with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are more likely to be younger than females, with 38% of males aged 65 years and older, compared to 55% of females.

Table 8 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability, by sex and age group, 2001
Sex Age group Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Both sexes 15 years and older 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
15 – 24 years 3,400 2.3% 26,500 4.7% 386,100 22.0%
25 – 44 years 21,000 14.3% 120,700 21.4% 755,200 43.0%
45 – 64 years 52,100 35.4% 199,200 35.3% 402,000 22.9%
65 years and older 70,900 48.1% 217,500 38.6% 213,700 12.2%
Male 15 years and older 60,500 100.0% 211,800 100.0% 745,100 100.0%
15 – 24 years 1,900 3.1% 11,500 5.4% 182,200 24.5%
25 – 44 years 10,100 16.7% 51,900 24.5% 317,200 42.6%
45 – 64 years 25,300 41.8% 90,300 42.6% 181,200 24.3%
65 years and older 23,100 38.2 58,100 27.4% 64,600 8.7%
Female 15 years and older 86,800 100.0 352,000 100.0% 1,011,800 100.0%
15 – 24 years 1,400 1.6 15,100 4.3% 204,000 20.2%
25 – 44 years 10,900 12.6 68,700 19.5% 438,000 43.3%
45 – 64 years 26,700 30.8 108,900 30.9% 220,800 21.8%
65 years and older 47,800 55.1 159,400 45.3% 149,100 14.7%

Living Arrangements

Persons with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are most likely to live alone or in a family without children. Almost half (49% or 72,600) of those with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are living alone compared to 21% (or 370,300) of individuals without disabilities (see Table 9). Of the 147,300 persons with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need, 23% live in families without children compared to 14% of persons without disabilities.

When living arrangements for individuals living in core housing need are looked at by age group, a different picture emerges for those with hearing disabilities. Over half (54% or 10,500) of young people aged 15 to 24 years with a hearing disability live in a Census family household with children, compared to 64% of persons without disabilities. Proportionately more (25% or 4,800) with a hearing disability live in lone parent families, compared to 17% of persons without disabilities. Among those individuals who are 25 to 44 years with a hearing disability, 16% or 17,200 live alone and this proportion increases to 17% among persons aged 45 to 64 years with a hearing disability.

In contrast, among persons without disabilities, only 9% of those aged 24 to 44 and 11% of those aged 45 to 64 years live alone. Among persons with a hearing disability who are aged 65 years and older, 10% live in a non-family household, compared to 6% for persons without disabilities.

Table 9 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability and living arrangements, 2001
Living arrangements Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of living arrangements 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
Living alone 72,600 49.3% 261,900 46.4% 370,300 21.1%
Non-family person, living with others 7,000 4.8% 38,500 6.8% 125,800 7.2%
Lone parent family 19,400 13.2% 89,300 15.8% 407,400 23.2%
Family without children 33,400 22.7% 103,200 18.3% 241,000 13.7%
Family with children 14,800 10.0% 70,900 12.6% 612,300 34.8%

Immigrant Status

About 27% (39,300) of persons aged 15 and older with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are immigrants compared to 37% (650,100) of persons without disabilities (see Table 10).

Table 10 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability and immigrant status, 2001
Immigrant status Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada — All immigrant status 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
Non-immigrant 108,000 73.3% 426,500 75.6% 1,106,900 63.0%
Immigrant 39,300 26.7% 137,400 24.4% 650,100 37.0%

Household Income

Regardless of disability status, the majority of persons that live in a household in core housing need have low incomes: 89% of persons with a hearing disability are in households in the lowest income quintile compared to 77% of those without disabilities (see text box and Table 11).

Table 11 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability and household income quintile, 2001
Income quintile Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Total 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
High, Upper, Middle ($46,896 or more) 0 0 * * 27,200 1.5%
Moderate ($27,418 – $46,895) 16,300 11.1% 59,000 10.5% 383,100 21.8%
Low (less than $27,418) 131,000 88.9% 501,500 88.9% 1,346,600 76.6%

* Number suppressed because of sampe size.

Source: 2001 PALS

Sources of Personal Income

For the purpose of this analysis, the pre-tax household income of Canadian households with at least one person aged 15 years and older was assessed and divided into five equally sized income groups or quintiles ranging from low-income to high-income.

High Income: $96,936 or more
Upper Income: $67,812 – 96,935
Middle Income: $46,896 – $67,811
Moderate Income: $27,418 – $46,895
Low Income: Less than $27,418

Only 13% or 18,700 persons aged 15 and older with a hearing disability who live in a household in core housing need report wages and salaries as a source of personal income compared to almost half (48% or 843,100) of persons without disabilities (see Table 12).

Most households in core need report some income from government sources (including Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplement, benefits from the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, benefits from Employment Insurance, or provincial income supplements and welfare payments). Almost all (94%) people with a hearing disability that live in core housing need have household income from government sources compared to 82% of persons without disabilities that live in a household in core housing need.

Table 12 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability and sources of personal income
Sources of personal income Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Percentages add to more than 100% since income from all sources was reported.
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada — All sources of income 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,700 100.0%
Wages and salaries 18,700 12.7% 93,800 16.6% 843,100 48.0%
Income from selfemployment 7,500 5.1% 20,500 3.6% 128,400 7.3%
Income from Government 137,700 93.5% 532,300 94.4% 1,434,500 81.6%
Other income, such as retirement pensions, dividends and interest on bonds, deposits and savings, alimony, child support, scholarships, etc. 8,500 5.8% 28,500 5.1% 121,100 6.9%

Level of Education

Among persons with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need, 63% have not completed high school, compared to 40% of persons without disabilities that live in a household in core housing need. Also, only 11% of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need report some university education compared to 21% of persons without disabilities (see Table 13).

The overall incidence of core housing need is 15% for people with a hearing disability but there are variations when level and type of education is considered. While the incidence is highest for persons who have not completed high school (18%), the incidence is lowest among persons with a trade certificate or diploma (6%). Where a bachelor degree has been achieved, there is an 11% likelihood of living in a household in core housing need.

Table 13 Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and no disability and highest level of education, 2001
Highest level of education Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability without disabilities
(#) (%) Incidence of core need (#) (%) Incidence of core need
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada — All levels of education 147,300 100.0% 14.5% 1,757,000 100.0% 9.1%
Less than high school graduation 93,400 63.4% 18.1% 708,000 40.3% 13.2%
Secondary school graduation certificate 10,700 7.3% 11.2% 247,400 14.1% 8.7%
Trades certificate or diploma 3,800 2.6% 6.2% 53,300 3.0% 8.0%
Other non-university 24,000 16.3% 11.8% 378,900 21.6% 7.5%
University but no degree 7,000 4.8% 12.4% 173,600 9.9% 8.3%
At least bachelor degree 8,500 5.8% 10.9% 195,800 11.1% 6.0%

Health Status

Almost half (49%) of persons aged 15 and older who report having a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need consider that their general health status is fair or poor (see Table 14).

Table 14 Persons aged 15 years and older with disabilities living in a household in core housing need, by hearing and any type of disability and general health status
General health status Persons aged 15 and older living in a household in core housing need
with a hearing disability with any type of disability
(#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada — All levels of general health status 147,300 100.0% 563,900 100.0%
Excellent 5,400 3.7% 21,300 3.8%
Very good 20,900 14.2% 92,000 16.3%
Good 42,600 28.9% 157,100 27.9%
Fair 42,700 29.0% 174,300 30.9%
Poor 29,900 20.3% 95,400 16.9%
Not stated, refusal or don't know 5,800 3.9% 23,900 4.2%

Of those who indicated a fair level of general health, nearly three quarters (73%) have a severe or very severe level of disability, about 45% are aged 45 to 64 years, and 72% have three more types of disabilities in addition to their hearing disability.

Of those who indicated a poor level of general health, 88% have a severe or very severe level of disability, 46% are aged 45 to 64 years and 71% have three more types of disabilities in addition to their hearing disability.

Summary of Findings

Persons Aged 15 and Older with a Hearing Disability

General Characteristics

  • 30% of Canadians with disabilities aged 15 years and older have a hearing disability. The incidence is highest in Newfoundland and Labrador, at 36%, and lowest in Alberta, at 28%.
  • Males with disabilities are more likely to report a hearing disability than females (38% compared to 25%, respectively)
  • 76% of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability also report that they have a mobility/agility disability.

Housing Conditions of Persons Aged 15 and Older with a Hearing Disability

Housing Characteristics

  • 15% of persons aged 15 years and older with a hearing disability live in a household in core housing need (compared to 9% of people without disabilities), with the highest incidence (18%) reported in Prince Edward Island and the lowest (8%) in New Brunswick.
  • The incidence of living in a rental household in core housing need is higher (at 32%) for persons with a hearing disability than for persons without disabilities (at 21%).
  • Persons with a hearing disability living in a house that is owned by a family member are more likely to be living in a household in core housing need (at 8%) than persons without disabilities (at 5%).

Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics

  • The majority (59%) of people with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need are females.
  • Almost one-half (49%) of persons with a hearing disability that live in a household in core housing need live alone compared to 21% of individuals without disabilities.
  • 27% of persons with a hearing disability and who live in a household in core housing need are immigrants compared to 37% of persons without disabilities.

Acknowledgements

CMHC provides funding for housing content on the Census of Canada and on Statistics Canada surveys. Statistics Canada information is used with the permission of Statistics Canada. Users are forbidden to copy and redisseminate data for commercial purposes, either in an original or modified form, without the express permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and, where applicable, Statistics Canada. More information on Statistics Canada data can be obtained from its Regional Offices, at http://www.statcan.gc.ca, or at 1-800-263-1136.

CMHC Project Manager: Janet Kreda

Housing Research at CMHC

Under Part IX of the National Housing Act, the Government of Canada provides funds to CMHC to conduct research into the social, economic and technical aspects of housing and related fields, and to undertake the publishing and distribution of the results of this research.

This fact sheet is one of a series intended to inform you of the nature and scope of CMHC’s research.

1 People who answer “Yes” to one of the questions on general limitations and “No” to the specific disability-type questions are classified as having “nature of disability unknown.”

2 Refers to all private households. People living in collective dwellings (see Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Dictionary, Cat. No. 92-378-XIE, pages 190-193) are excluded by definition.

3 According to the NOS, enough bedrooms means one bedroom for each cohabitation adult couple; unattached household member 18 years of age and over; same-sex pair of children under age 18; and additional boy or girl in the family, unless there are two opposite sex siblings under 5 years of age, in which case they are expected to share a bedroom. A household of one individual can occupy a bachelor unit (i.e. a unit with no bedroom).

4 Shelter costs include the following:

  • For renters, rent and payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services; and
  • For owners, mortgage payments (principal and interest), property taxes, and any condominium fees, along with payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services. Costs associated with maintenance and repairs are not considered part of shelter costs.

Income data collected by the 2001 Census refer to the calendar year preceding the Census, while shelter cost data are for 2001.

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