2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Issue 4 — Profile of the Housing Conditions of Canadians Aged 15 Years and Older with an Emotional/Psychological Disability

Introduction

This Research Highlight is one in a series which examines the housing conditions and characteristics of Canadians with disabilities.

It focuses on those who are aged 15 years and older who report having an emotional/psychological disability. Data used in this highlight are from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (2001 PALS). PALS is Canada’s principal national survey focusing on people with disabilities. It provides information on the prevalence and severity of certain types of disability, on the use of and unmet need for supports, and on participation in various everyday activities.

Definitions

Population with Disabilities Examined in this Highlight

This highlight examines the population 15 years of age and older only. The data presented here and in subsequent highlights will differ from the first issue in this series, which was based on the 2001 Census, because of some key differences between the 2001 Census and 2001 PALS with respect to identifying people with disabilities. The 2001 PALS identifies an estimated 945,000 fewer people aged 15 years and older with a disability than did the 2001 Census. This is because some individuals who responded “Yes” to the Census disability questions responded “No” to the more detailed questions on the 2001 PALS related to specific types of disabilities. It is also due to differences in the geographic coverage — the 2001 Census includes the people living in the territories and in First Nations communities but these areas and their populations are excluded from the 2001 PALS.

Disability in the 2001 PALS

The 2001 PALS asks about specific domains of functioning in which one may experience ongoing difficulties doing activities and identifies 10 specific types of disabilities (as well as an “unknown”1 category):

  • Mobility
  • Agility
  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Speaking/communicating
  • Developmental
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Emotional/psychological
  • Pain

The 2001 PALS includes three ways to look at disability characteristics: type(s) of disability that an individual reports, number of types of disabilities that an individual reports, and a severity measure that includes the nature and extent of the individual’s disability across all the types of disabilities reported by the individual.

Emotional/Psychological Disability

In the 2001 PALS, an individual with an emotional/ psychological disability is someone who is limited in the amount or kinds of activities he/she can do due to the presence of an emotional, psychological or psychiatric condition that has lasted or is expected to last six months or more.

Core Housing Need

Households2 are considered to be in core housing need if they do not live in and do not have sufficient income to access acceptable housing. The term “acceptable housing” refers to housing that is in adequate physical condition, of suitable size and affordable.

  • Adequate dwellings are those reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs.
  • Suitable dwellings have enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households, according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements.3
  • Affordable dwellings cost less than 30% of before-tax household income.4

A household is said to be in core housing need if its housing falls below at least one of the adequacy, suitability or affordability standards and it would have to spend 30% or more of its before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing.

When discussing core housing need, household data exclude farm, band and reserve households (for which shelter costs are not collected by the census). It also excludes households with shelter costs that equal or exceed their income, or incomes of zero or less.

Findings

Persons with an Emotional/Psychological Disability Aged 15 Years and Older

Among persons who report having a disability, an about 15% (or 517,700) have an emotional/psychological disability (see Table 1).

Table 1 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in households, by type of disability, 2001
  Number (%)*
*Percentages add to more than 100% because people can report more than one disability.
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of disabilities 3,352,300 100.0%
Hearing 1,013,700 30.2%
Seeing 586,800 17.5%
Speaking/Communicating 356,300 10.6%
Mobility/agility 2,692,800 80.3%
Pain 2,332,300 69.6%
Learning 442,000 13.2%
Memory 414,900 12.4%
Developmental 117,000 3.5%
Emotional / Psychological 517,700 15.4%
Unknown 94,400 2.8%

Geography

The incidence of emotional/psychological disability varies among the ten provinces, with the highest rate in Ontario and British Columbia (both at 17%), and the lowest rate in Saskatchewan (at 11%) (see Table 2).

Table 2 Number of persons aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability and relative to any type of disability, Canada and the provinces, 2001
Geography Persons aged 15 years and older % with an emotional/ psychological disability
with any type of disability with an emotional/ psychological disability
Source: 2001 PALS
CANADA 3,352,300  517,700 15.4%
Newfoundland and Labrador 57,500 7,900  13.7%
Prince Edward Island 17,500 2,000 11.4%
Nova Scotia 144,300 20,200 14.0%
New Brunswick 97,500 11,200 11.5%
Quebec 560,100 80,000 14.3%
Ontario 1,413,900 238,300 16.9%
Manitoba 133,400 15,200 11.4%
Saskatchewan 110,100 12,200 11.1%
Alberta 320,200 46,800 14.6%
British Columbia 497,700 83,900 16.9%

Age and Gender

Persons with an emotional/psychological disability are much younger than those reporting any type of disability, with an average age of 50 years, compared to 59 years, and this is true for both males and females.

Overall, the percentage of females with disabilities with an emotional/psychological disability is higher than for males (16%, compared to 15%) (see Table 3). However, in the youngest age group (15 to 24 years), males are more likely to report this disability type than females (24%, compared to 22%).

Table 3 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability and relative to any type of disability, sex and age group, 2001
Sex Age group Persons aged 15 years and older % with an emotional/ psychological disability
with any type of disability with an emotional/ psychological disability
Source: 2001 PALS
Both sexes 15 years and older 3,352,300 517,700 15.4%
15 to 24 years 148,000 33,500 22.6%
25 to 44 years 618,300 156,000 25.2%
45 to 64 years 1,162,700 236,100 20.3%
65 years and older 1,423,200 92,200 6.5%
Male 15 years and older 1,487,800 220,700 14.8%
15 to 24 years 73,000 17,300 23.7%
25 to 44 years 283,900 64,900 22.9%
45 to 64 years 541,400 99,600 18.4%
65 years and older 589,500 38,900 6.6%
Female 15 years and older 1,864,500 297,100 15.9%
15 to 24 years 75,000 16,200 21.6%
25 to 44 years 334,400 91,000 27.2%
45 to 64 years 621,300 136,500 22.0%
65 years and older 833,700 53,300 6.4%

Presence of Other Types of Disabilities

Persons with an emotional/psychological disability are much more likely to report learning (36%) and memory (34%) disabilities than the total population with disabilities (13% and 12%, respectively). Persons with an emotional/ psychological disability are also more likely than persons with any type of disability to report a speaking/ communicating disability (23%, compared to 11%) (see Tables 4 and 1).

About 82% (or 423,000) of people with an emotional/ psychological disability also report having a mobility/agility disability and 78% (or 405,100) report a limitation in their activity due to pain (see Table 4).

Table 4 Distribution of persons aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability, by type of other disability, 2001
Type of disability Distribution of those with an emotional/psychological disability by other disability type
(#) (%)*
* Percentages add to more than 100% because people can report more than one other disability.
Source: 2001 PALS
Emotional/Psychological 517,700 100.0%
Learning 187,800 36.3%
Mobility/agility 423,000 81.7%
Seeing 117,500 22.7%
Hearing 141,500 27.3%
Speaking/communicating 116,900 22.6%
Developmental 49,500 9.6%
Memory 178,300 34.4%
Pain 405,100 78.2%

People with an emotional/psychological disability are more likely (at 86%) to report having two or more additional types of disabilities than the population with any type of disability (at 54%). When asked to describe the main condition or health problem that causes their limitation in activity, the majority (71%) of people with an emotional/psychological disability attribute it to other conditions such as mobility/ agility, hearing and/or seeing, while 29% describe mental disorders as the primary cause of their limitation.

Severity of Disability

About 76% (or 395,400) of persons with an emotional/ psychological disability have a severe or very severe disability, compared to 41% of persons with any type of disability (see Table 5). Since the severity of disability can be linked to having more than one disability, this finding is consistent with previous findings that individuals who have an emotional/psychological disability are more likely to report multiple types of disabilities than those individuals who report any type of disability.

Table 5 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older with emotional or any type of disability by severity of disability, 2001
Severity of disability Persons aged 15 years and older with
any type of disability an emotional/ psychological disability
(#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Total 3,352,300 100.0% 517,700 100.0%
Mild 1,134,800 33.9% 40,300 7.8%
Moderate 838,800 25.0% 82,000 15.8%
Severe 903,500 27.0% 186,400 36.0%
Very severe 475,100 14.2% 209,000 40.4%

There are differences when these data are examined by age, the most significant of which occurs among persons aged 15 to 24 years. In this young age group, 60% (or 20,200 persons) with an emotional/psychological disability have a severe or very severe disability, twice the proportion of those aged 15 to 24 reporting any disability (30%).

Persons aged 15 to 24 years with an emotional/psychological disability are more likely to report multiple disabilities than persons from the same age group with any type of disability (89%, compared to 72%).

Housing Characteristics of Persons with an Emotional/Psychological Disability who are Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

At the Canada level, 23% of persons aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability live in a household in core housing need, higher than the incidence among people without disabilities (9%) and among people with any type of disability (17%) (see Table 6). The rate varies significantly among the provinces, with the lowest incidence in Prince Edward Island (at 15%) and the highest in British Columbia (at 31%).

Table 6 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status, Canada and the provinces, 2001
Geography Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada 117,400 22.7% 563,900 16.8% 1,757,000 9.1%
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,900 24.1% 10,700 18.5% 35,900 10.3%
Prince Edward Island 300 15.0% 2,500 14.5% 6,600 7.8%
Nova Scotia 4,700 23.3% 25,100 17.4% 55,000 9.6%
New Brunswick 2,300 20.5% 11,700 12.0% 31,800 6.7%
Quebec 16,000 20.0% 89,200 15.9% 376,300 7.4%
Ontario 51,600 21.7% 247,800 17.5% 772,900 10.5%
Manitoba 2,700 17.8% 17,300 13.0% 40,600 6.6%
Saskatchewan 2,600 21.3% 12,400 11.3% 31,100 6.4%
Alberta 9,100 19.4% 45,100 14.1% 124,800 7.1%
British Columbia 26,000 31.0% 102,000 20.5% 282,100 11.2%

Urban/Rural

The probability of living in a household in core housing need is significantly higher in urban areas (24%) than in rural areas (16%) for persons with an emotional/ psychological disability. These incidence rates are higher than for persons with any type of disability (17% in urban areas, 13% in rural areas) and for persons without disabilities (10% in urban areas, 6% in rural areas).

Tenure

The incidence of core housing need is much higher for renters than for owners, regardless of disability status. More than one-third (37%) of persons with an emotional/psychological disability who live in rental accommodations are living in a household in core need, compared to 12% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability who live in dwellings owned by a member of the family (see Table 7).

People with an emotional/psychological disability living in rental housing are more likely to live in a household in core housing need (at 37%) than people without disabilities (at 21%). For those living in housing that is owned, the incidence is higher for people with an emotional/psychological disability (at 12%) than for people without disabilities (at 5%) (see Table 7).

Table 7 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and tenure, 2001.
Tenure Persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/ psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 22.7% 563,900 16.8% 1,757,000 9.1%
Owned by a member of the family 36,300 12.1% 202,300 8.9% 673,500 4.8%
Rented 81,100 37.2% 361,600 33.6% 1,083,400 21.1%

Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Persons Aged 15 Years and Older with an Emotional/Psychological Disability Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Age and Gender

Females account for over half (56%, or 65,300) of those with an emotional/psychological disability who are living in a household in core housing need, compared to 62% of the population who report any type of disability and 58% of the population without disabilities.

Just under half (44%, or 51,100) of people with an emotional/psychological disability who live in a household in core housing need are under 45 years of age, compared to 26% of persons reporting any type of disability and 65% of persons without disabilities (see Table 8).

While females with an emotional/psychological disability who are living in a household in core need tend to be slightly younger than males, the age distributions are fairly similar, with the largest difference occurring in persons aged 45 to 64 years — 44% for males and 40% for females.

Table 8 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status, sex and age group, 2001
Sex Age group Persons aged 15 years and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Both sexes 15 years and older 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
15 to 24 7,500 6.4% 26,500 4.7% 386,100 22.0%
25 to 44 43,600 37.1% 120,700 21.4% 755,200 43.0%
45 to 64 48,800 41.6% 199,200 35.3% 402,000 22.9%
65 and older 17,500 14.9% 217,500 38.6% 213,700 12.2%
Males 15 years and older 52,100 100.0% 211,800 100.0% 745,100 100.0%
15 to 24 3,300 6.3% 11,500 5.4% 182,200 24.5%
25 to 44 18,700 35.9% 51,900 24.5% 317,200 42.6%
45 to 64 22,800 43.8% 90,300 42.6% 181,200 24.3%
65 and older 7,300 14.0% 58,100 27.4% 64,600 8.7%
Females 15 years and older 65,300 100.0% 352,000 100.0% 1,011,800 100.0%
15 to 24 4,200 6.4% 15,100 4.3% 204,000 20.2%
25 to 44 24,900 38.1% 68,700 19.5% 438,000 43.3%
45 to 64 26,100 40.0% 108,900 30.9% 220,800 21.8%
65 and older 10,200 15.6% 159,400 45.3% 149,100 14.7%

Living Arrangements

About 41% (or 48,500) of persons with an emotional/ psychological disability who are living in core housing need live alone, lower than for those with any type of disability (at 46%) but considerably higher than for those without disabilities (at 21%) (see Table 9).

Just under half (48%, or 3,600) of young people aged 15 to 24 years with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need live in a lone-parent family compared to 39% of people in the same age group without disabilities. Almost half (46%) of persons aged 45 to 64 years with an emotional/psychological disability in core need live alone, compared to 26% of people without disabilities.

Table 9 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and living arrangement, 2001
Living arrangements Persons aged 15 and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of living arrangements 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
Living alone 48,500 41.3% 261,900 46.4% 370,300 21.1%
Non family person, living with others 9,700 8.3% 38,500 6.8% 125,800 7.2%
Lone parent family 28,300 24.1% 89,300 15.8% 407,400 23.2%
Family without children 15,200 12.9% 103,200 18.3% 241,000 13.7%
Family with children 15,700 13.4% 70,900 12.6% 612,300 34.8%

Immigrant Status

Among persons aged 15 and older with an emotional/ psychological disability, 13% (or 15,700) are immigrants who arrived in Canada before 1992 and 3% (or 3,600) are immigrants who arrived in Canada between 1992 and 2001. Both these proportions are considerably smaller than among persons without disabilities — 20% and 17%, respectively (see Table 10).

Table 10 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and immigrant status, 2001
Immigrant status Persons aged 15 and older who are living in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
Non-immigrant 98,100 83.6% 426,500 75.6% 1,106,900 63.0%
Immigrant 1992 to 2001 3,600 3.1% 15,700 2.8% 304,700 17.3%
Immigrant before 1992 15,700 13.4% 121,700 21.6% 345,400 19.7%

Household Income

Regardless of disability status, the great majority of persons living in a household in core housing need have low incomes: 89% of people with an emotional/psychological disability are in the lowest income quintile, as are 77% of those without disabilities. The rest (or almost the rest) live in households in the second lowest income quintile (see Table 11).

Table 11 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and household income quintile, 2001
Household Income — Quintiles Persons aged 15 years and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
* Number suppressed because of sample size.
Source:
2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,000 100.0%
High, Upper, Middle ($46,896 or more) * * * * 27,200 1.5%
Moderate ($27,418-$46,895) 12,900 11.0% 59,000 10.5% 383,100 21.8%
Low (less than $27,418) 104,500 89.0% 501,500 88.9% 1,346,600 76.6%

Sources of Personal Income

For the purpose of this analysis, the pre-tax household income of Canadian households with at least one person aged 15 years and older were assessed and divided into five equally sized income groups or quintiles ranging from low- income to high-income.

High Income: $96,936 or more
Upper Income: $67,812 – 96,935
Middle Income: $46,896 – $67,811
Moderate Income: $27,418 – $46,895
Low Income: Less than $27,418

About 20% (or 22,900) persons with an emotional/ psychological disability living in a household in core housing need report wages and salaries as a source of personal income, compared to almost half (48% or 843,100) of persons without disabilities (see Table 12). A smaller percentage of persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need report self-employment as a source of income (at 3%) than do persons without disabilities (at 7%).

A large percentage of individuals living in a household in core housing need report some income from government sources (including Old Age Security, Guaranteed Income Supplement, benefits from Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, benefits from Employment Insurance, provincial income supplements and welfare payments). 92% of people with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core need have income from government sources, which is higher than the proportion of people without disabilities (at 82%).

Table 12 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and sources of personal income, 2001
Sources of personal income Persons aged 15 years and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/psychological disability with any type of disability without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%) (#) (%)
Percentages add to greater than 100% because people report all sources of personal income.
Source:
2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0% 1,757,700 100.0%
Wages and salaries 22,900 19.5% 93,800 16.6% 843,100 48.0%
Income from self-employment 2,900 2.5% 20,500 3.6% 128,400 7.3%
Income from Government 107,800 91.8% 532,300 94.4% 1,434,500 81.6%
Other income, such as retirement pensions, dividends and interest on bonds, deposits and savings, alimony, child support, scholarships, etc. 7,000 6.0% 28,500 5.1% 121,100 6.9%

Level of Education

People with an emotional/psychological disability living in core housing need have a pattern of educational attainment that is generally similar to people without disabilities; the main difference is in type of post-secondary education.

Among persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need, 43% have not completed high school compared to 40% of persons without disabilities (see Table 13). However, persons with an emotional/psychological disability are more likely to attend non-university programs (28%) than persons without disabilities (22%) and less likely to achieve at least a bachelor’s degree at university (6%) than persons without disabilities (11%).

Although the overall incidence of core housing need is 23% for people with an emotional/psychological disability, there is variation when one looks at the incidence by age and highest level of education. Among persons aged 25 to 44 years who report less than high school graduation, the incidence is 29%, slightly higher than the incidence for persons aged 45 to 64 years (23%).

Table 13 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and highest level of education, 2001
Highest level of education Persons aged 15 and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/ psychological disability Incidence of Core housing need without disabilities Incidence of Core housing need
(#) (%) (%) (#) (%) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 100.0% 22.7% 1,757,000 100.0% 9.1%
Less than high school graduation 50,300 42.8% 23.8% 708,000 40.3% 13.2%
Secondary school graduation certificate 13,600 11.6% 21.4% 247,400 14.1% 8.7%
Trades certificate or diploma 2,400 2.0% 16.8% 53,300 3.0% 8.0%
Other non-university 33,200 28.3% 23.9% 378,900 21.6% 7.5%
University but no degree 11,100 9.5% 22.9% 173,600 9.9% 8.3%
At least bachelor degree 6,900 5.9% 16.8% 195,800 11.1% 6.0%

Health Status

About 60% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need consider their general health status to be “fair” or “poor,” compared to 48% of individuals with any type of disability living in a household in core housing need (see Table 14).

Table 14 Number and percent of persons aged 15 years and older with disabilities living in a household in core housing need, by type of disability and general health status
General health status Persons aged 15 and older who are living in a household in core housing need
with an emotional/ psychological disability with any type of disability
(#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 117,400 100.0% 563,900 100.0%
Excellent 1,600 1.4% 21,300 3.8%
Very good 10,000 8.5% 92,000 16.3%
Good 29,400 25.0% 157,100 27.9%
Fair 39,200 33.4% 174,300 30.9%
Poor 30,900 26.3% 95,400 16.9%
Not stated, refusal or don’t know 6,300 5.4% 23,900 4.2%

The great majority (82% or 57,300) of individuals with an emotional/psychological disability who are living in a household in core housing need who say their health is “fair” are aged 25 to 64 years, as compared to 34% of persons with any type of disability.

Overall about 35% of persons with an emotional/ psychological disability who are living in core housing need say their general health is “good” or better, but there are significant differences when the number of disabilities reported by the individual is examined. While 84% or 4,100 persons with an emotional/psychological disability as their only disability view their health as “good” or better, this proportion drops dramatically as the number of disabilities reported by the individual increases. For example, among persons reporting four other disabilities, the proportion drops to 25%.

Summary of Findings

Persons with an Emotional/Psychological Disability Aged 15 and Older

General Characteristics

  • Whereas 15% of Canadians with disabilities aged 15 years and older report having an emotional/ psychological disability, the proportion varies among the provinces, with the lowest in Saskatchewan at 11% and the highest in Ontario and British Columbia at 17%.
  • The percentage of females with an emotional/ psychological disability is higher than for males — 16%, compared to 15%.
  • Persons with an emotional/psychological disability are much more likely to report memory and learning disabilities than the total population with disabilities.
  • About 76% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability are classified as having a severe or very severe disability, compared to 41% among persons reporting any type of disability.

Persons Aged 15 and Older with an Emotional/ Psychological Disability Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Housing Characteristics

  • At the Canada level, 23% of persons aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability live in a household in core housing need. The lowest incidence is in Prince Edward Island at 15% and the highest is in British Columbia at 31%.
  • The incidence of core housing need for persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in rental housing is higher than the incidence for persons without disabilities (37% compared to 21%).
  • The incidence of core housing need for persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in housing that is owned is higher than among persons without disabilities (12%, compared to 5%).

Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics

  • 56% of people aged 15 years and older with an emotional/psychological disability who are living in a household in core housing need are female.
  • 44% of people with an emotional/psychological disability living in core housing need are under 45 years of age, compared to 65% of persons without disabilities.
  • About 41% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability who are living in a household in core housing need live alone.
  • 16% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability are immigrants, compared to 37% of persons without disabilities.
  • 89% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need had a household before-tax income in the lowest income quintile (less than $27,418).
  • 20% of persons with an emotional/psychological disability living in a household in core housing need report wages and salaries as a source of personal income, compared to 48% of those without disabilities.
  • Persons with an emotional/psychological disability and who live in core housing need are less likely to report having at least a bachelor’s degree than those individuals without disabilities who are living in core housing need (6% versus 11%, respectively).
  • 60% of persons aged 15 and older with an emotional/ psychological disability who live in a household in core housing need report a health status of “fair” or “poor”, compared to 48% of persons with any type of disability.

Acknowledgements

CMHC provides funding for housing content on the Census of Canada and on Statistics Canada surveys. Statistics Canada information is used with the permission of Statistics Canada. Users are forbidden to copy and redisseminate data for commercial purposes, either in an original or modified form, without the express permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and, where applicable, Statistics Canada. More information on Statistics Canada data can be obtained from its Regional Offices, at http://www.statcan.gc.ca, or at 1-800-263-1136.

CMHC Project Manager: Janet Kreda

Housing Research at CMHC

Under Part IX of the National Housing Act, the Government of Canada provides funds to CMHC to conduct research into the social, economic and technical aspects of housing and related fields, and to undertake the publishing and distribution of the results of this research.

This fact sheet is one of a series intended to inform you of the nature and scope of CMHC’s research.

1 People who answer “Yes” to one of the questions on general limitations and “No” to the specific disability-type questions are classified as having “nature of disability unknown.”

2 Refers to all private households. People living in collective dwellings (see Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Dictionary, Cat. No. 92-378-XIE, pages 190 – 193) are excluded by definition.

3 According to the NOS, enough bedrooms means one bedroom for each cohabitation adult couple; unattached household member 18 years of age and over; same-sex pair of children under age 18; and additional boy or girl in the family, unless there are two opposite-sex siblings under 5 years of age, in which case they are expected to share a bedroom. A household of one individual can occupy a bachelor unit (i.e., a unit with no bedroom).

4 Shelter costs include the following:

  • For renters, rent and payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services; and
  • For owners, mortgage payments (principal and interest), property taxes, and any condominium fees, along with payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services. Costs associated with maintenance and repairs are not considered part of shelter costs.

Income data collected by the 2001 Census refer to the calendar year preceding the Census, while shelter cost data are for 2001.

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