2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey: Issue 8 — Profile of the Housing Conditions of Seniors with Disabilities

Introduction

This Research Highlight is one in a series of highlights that examine the housing conditions and characteristics of Canadians with disabilities. It focuses on seniors (aged 65 years and older) with disabilities. Data used in this highlight are from the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (2001 PALS). PALS is Canada’s principal national survey focusing on people with disabilities. It provides information on the prevalence and severity of disability, on the use of and unmet need for supports, and on participation in various everyday activities.

Definitions

Population with Disabilities Examined in this Highlight

The 2001 PALS includes seniors who are living in private dwellings but excludes residents of long-term care facilities, residential care facilities or other types of collective dwellings that are typically home to seniors and persons with disabilities. In the 2001 Census, there were 327,670 residents within these facilities and the majority were aged 65 years and older.1

The data presented here differs from the first issue in this series, which was based on the 2001 Census, because of some key differences between the 2001 Census and 2001 PALS with respect to identifying people with disabilities. The 2001 PALS identifies an estimated 330,000 fewer people aged 65 years and older with a disability than did the 2001 Census. This is because some individuals who responded “Yes” to the Census disability questions responded “No” to the more detailed questions on the 2001 PALS related to specific types of disabilities. It is also due to differences in the geographic coverage — the 2001 Census includes the people living in the territories and in First Nations communities but these areas and their populations are excluded from the 2001 PALS.

Disability in the 2001 PALS

The 2001 PALS asks about specific domains of functioning in which one may experience ongoing difficulties doing activities and identifies 10 specific types of disabilities (as well as an “unknown”2 category):

  • Mobility
  • Agility
  • Seeing
  • Hearing
  • Speaking/communicating
  • Developmental
  • Learning
  • Memory
  • Emotional/psychological
  • Pain

The severity of an individual’s disability is assessed in the 2001 PALS based on the frequency and intensity of the limitations. For example, a person who has no difficulty walking and climbing stairs but who cannot stand in line for more than twenty minutes would have a mild mobility-related disability. A person who can move around only via a wheelchair would have a severe mobility-related disability.

PALS collects information on the types of special housing features that people with disabilities use or need to assist them. These include, for example, ramps and lifts that assist with entering and leaving the dwelling, as well as grab bars, bath lifts and widened hallways or doorways that facilitate mobility within the home.

Core Housing Need

Households3 are considered to be in core housing need if they do not live in and do not have sufficient income to access acceptable housing. The term “acceptable housing” refers to housing that is in adequate physical condition, of suitable size and affordable.

  • Adequate dwellings are those reported by their residents as not requiring any major repairs.
  • Suitable dwellings have enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident households, according to the National Occupancy Standard (NOS) requirements.4
  • Affordable dwellings cost less than 30% of before-tax household income.5

A household is said to be in core housing need if its housing falls below at least one of the adequacy, suitability or affordability standards and it would have to spend 30% or more of its before-tax income to pay the median rent of alternative local housing.

When discussing core housing need, household data exclude farm, band and reserve households (for which shelter costs are not collected by the Census). It also excludes households with shelter costs that exceed their income and households with incomes of zero or less, since housing conditions cannot be assessed for these households.

Findings

General Characteristics of Persons with Disabilities Aged 65 Years and Older

Geography

There are 1,423,200 persons with disabilities who are 65 years and older, resulting in a national disability rate of 41% (see Table 1).

This rate varies among the provinces, with Quebec recording the lowest rate (at 29%)6 and Nova Scotia recording the highest (at 50%).

Table 1 — Number of persons aged 65 years and older, by disability status, Canada and the provinces, 2001
  Population aged 65 years and older
Total Without disabilities With disabilities Disability rate
NOTE: Includes the population living in private non-farm, non-band, non-reserve households with household income greater than zero and with an average shelter cost-to-income ratio (STIRs) of less than 100%. Source: 2001 PALS
CANADA 3,464,100 2,040,900 1,423,200 41.1%
Newfoundland and Labrador 57,800 35,300 22,500 38.9%
Prince Edward Island 16,400 9,100 7,300 44.5%
Nova Scotia 116,600 58,800 57,800 49.6%
New Brunswick 89,900 49,300 40,600 45.2%
Quebec 834,700 596,900 237,800 28.5%
Ontario 1,349,800 738,000 611,800 45.3%
Manitoba 131,300 70,200 61,100 46.5%
Saskatchewan 118,000 62,700 55,300 46.9%
Alberta 264,600 146,900 117,700 44.5%
British Columbia 485,100 273,600 211,500 43.6%

Age and Gender

The rate of disability increases with age and is higher for females than for males for each of the three senior age groups: 65 to 74 years, 75 to 84 years and 85 years and older. The disability rate increases from 32% for people aged 65 to 74 years to 72% for people aged 85 years and older (see Table 2).

Among seniors aged 65 or older, the average age of women is higher than that of men and this holds true for both females with and without disabilities. For females, the average age among those with disabilities is 77 years and for those without disabilities, 73 years. Among males, the average age is 75 for those with disabilities and 72 years for those without disabilities.

Table 2 — Number and percent of persons aged 65 years and older, by disability status, age group and sex, 2001
  Population aged 65 years and older
with disabilities without disabilities Disability rate
Male Female Both sexes Male Female Both sexes Male Female Both sexes
Source: 2001 PALS
65 and older 589,500 833,700 1,423,200 922,500 1,118,500 2,040,900 39.0% 42.7% 41.1%
65 - 74 287,900 347,200 635,100 653,300 715,200 1,368,500 30.6% 32.7% 31.7%
75 - 84 236,800 352,400 589,200 242,800 352,700 595,400 49.4% 50.0% 49.7%
85 and older 64,800 134,100 198,900 26,400 50,600 77,000 71.1% 72.6% 72.1%

Living Arrangements

About 32% of seniors with disabilities live alone, compared to 27% of seniors without disabilities (see Table 3). Some 10% of seniors with disabilities live with others in a non-family household, and 8% live in lone parent families. As a senior, the probability of living alone increases with age and this holds true regardless of disability status. About 24% of seniors aged 65 to 74 with disabilities live alone, compared to 21% of those without disabilities. Among seniors aged 85 years and older, 47% of those with disabilities live alone and 54% of those without disabilities live alone.

Table 3 — Number of persons aged 65 years and older, by living arrangements and disability status, by age group
Living Arrangements Persons aged 65 years and older
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Persons aged 65 and older
All types of living arrangements 1,423,200
100.0% 2,040,900 100.0%
Living alone 450,800 31.7% 544,000 26.7%
Non family person, living with others 139,800 9.8% 118,500 5.8%
Lone parent family 106,700 7.5% 83,900 4.1%
Family without children 630,700 44.3% 1,132,000 55.5%
Family with children 95,300 6.7% 162,600 8.0%
Persons aged 65 to 74 years
All types of living arrangements 635,100 100.0% 1,368,500 100.0%
Living alone 150,300 23.7% 287,000 21.0%
Non family person, living with others 43,100 6.8% 73,900 5.4%
Lone parent family 40,100 6.3% 47,000 3.4%
Family without children 339,200 53.4% 826,400 60.4%
Family with children 62,400 9.8% 134,100 9.8%
Persons aged 75 to 84 years
All types of living arrangements 589,200 100.0% 595,400 100.0%
Living alone 208,100 35.3% 215,600 36.2%
Non family person, living with others 61,000 10.4% 36,000 6.0%
Lone parent family 47,500 8.1% 31,100 5.2%
Family without children 242,600 41.2% 285,600 48.0%
Family with children 30,000 5.1% 27,200 4.6%
Persons aged 85 years and older
All types of living arrangements 198,900 100.0% 77,000 100.0%
Living alone 92,400 46.5% 41,400 53.8%
Non family person, living with others 35,700 17.9% 8,500 11.0%
Lone parent family 19,000 9.6% 5,800 7.5%
Family without children 48,900 24.6% 20,000 26.0%
Family with children 2,900 1.5% 1,200 1.6%

Nature of Disabilities

The 2001 PALS includes three ways to look at disability characteristics: type(s) of disability that an individual reports, number of types of disabilities that an individual reports, and a severity measure that includes the nature and extent of the individual’s disability across all the types of disabilities reported by the individual.

The three most commonly reported types of disability among seniors aged 65 and older are mobility (78%), agility (72%) and pain (61%) (see Table 4).

As a senior increases in age, the number of disabilities reported also tends to increase. About 17% of seniors with disabilities report only one type of disability, and the proportion reporting only one type of disability decreases as age increases, from 19% for those aged 65 to 74 to 13% for those 85 and older (see Table 5). By contrast, 11% of seniors who are aged 65 to 74 years report five of more types of disabilities, increasing to 24% among seniors aged 85 years and older.

Seniors with disabilities who are male are more likely (at 19%) to report only one type of disability than females (at 16%).

Table 4 — Number and percent of persons aged 65 years and
older, by type of disability, 2001
  Number (%)*
*Percentages add to more than 100% because people can report more than
one disability.
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of disabilities 1,423,200 100.0%
Mobility 1,110,800 78.0%
Agility 1,028,300 72.3%
Pain 873,200 61.4%
Hearing 561,600 39.5%
Seeing 300,500 21.1%
Memory 151,300 10.6%
Speaking/Communicating 121,200 8.5%
Emotional/Psychological 92,200 6.5%
Learning 72,600 5.1%
Developmental 11,000 0.8%
Unknown 42,100 3.0%
Table 5 — Number and percent of persons aged 65 years and older, by number of disabilities reported and age group, 2001
Number of disabilities Number Percent
65-74 75-84 85 and older 65 and older 65-74 75-84 85 and older 65 and older
Source: 2001 PALS
Total 635,100 589,200 198,900 1,423,200 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
1 121,200 99,500 25,800 246,500 19.10% 16.90% 13.00% 17.30%
2 121,700 106,500 31,700 259,800 19.20% 18.10% 15.90% 18.30%
3 204,200 167,800 47,900 419,900 32.20% 28.50% 24.10% 29.50%
4 118,700 117,800 46,200 282,700 18.70% 20.00% 23.20% 19.90%
5 44,200 53,300 34,000 131,500 7.00% 9.00% 17.10% 9.20%
6 13,100 27,100 8,300 48,500 2.10% 4.60% 4.20% 3.40%
7 6,900 9,600 4,100 20,600 1.10% 1.60% 2.10% 1.40%
8 or more 5,000 7,800 1,000 13,600 0.80% 1.30% 0.50% 1.00%
Table 6 — Number of persons aged 65 years and older with disabilities, by severity of disability and age group, 2001
Severity of disability Number Percent
65-74 75-84 85 and older 65 and older 65-74 75-84 85 and older 65 and older
Source: 2001 PALS
Total 635,100 589,200 198,900 1,423,200 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Mild 250,800 200,900 52,800 504,300 35.60% 33.90% 24.10% 33.00%
Moderate 170,100 136,600 46,800 353,500 27.80% 23.60% 23.20% 25.30%
Severe 148,700 167,000 49,900 365,400 26.20% 28.70% 28.00% 27.50%
Very severe 65,700 84,900 49,500 200,000 10.40% 13.90% 24.80% 14.20%

About 42% of seniors with disabilities have a severe or very severe disability, 25% have a moderate disability, and the remaining 33%, have a mild disability (see Table 6).

However, as age increases, so does the severity of the disability. Among seniors aged 85 years and older, 53% have a severe or very severe disability, compared to 37% for seniors aged 65 to 74 years.

Proportionately, fewer male seniors (at 37%) than female seniors (at 42%) are classified as having a severe of very severe level of disability.

Housing Characteristics of Seniors who are Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Almost equal numbers of seniors with and without disabilities are living in a household in core housing need; however 15% of seniors with disabilities are living in a household in core housing need compared to 11% of seniors without disabilities (see Table 7).

Ontario has the highest proportion (18%) of seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing need in Canada, and Saskatchewan has the lowest proportion (8%).

Table 7 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status, Canada and the provinces, 2001
  Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
* Number suppressed because of sample size.
Source: 2001 PALS
CANADA 217,500 15.30% 213,700 10.50%
Newfoundland and Labrador 3,600 15.90% 3,200 9.00%
Prince Edward Island 1,000 14.10% * *
Nova Scotia 9,800 17.0% 7,600 12.90%
New Brunswick 3,700 9.10% * *
Quebec 29,700 12.50% 53,200 8.90%
Ontario 110,300 18.0% 97,100 13.20%
Manitoba 7,600 12.50% 3,800 5.40%
Saskatchewan 4,400 7.90% 3,900 6.30%
Alberta 14,300 12.20% 9,600 6.60%
British Columbia 33,000 15.60% 32,000 11.70%

On average, Canadian seniors with disabilities are about 1.5 times as likely to be living in a household in core housing need as seniors without disabilities. In Manitoba, seniors with disabilities are more than twice as likely to be living in a household in core housing need as those without disabilities, whereas in Nova Scotia, Alberta and British Columbia, seniors with disabilities are about 1.3 times as likely to be in core housing need.

Urban/Rural

The incidence of living in a household in core housing need is 17% in urban areas for seniors with disabilities, compared to 12% for seniors without disabilities (see Table 8). In rural areas, about 10 % of seniors with disabilities live in a household in core housing need, compared to 6% of seniors without disabilities.

Tenure

For seniors with disabilities, 9% live in dwellings that they or a member of their family owns and are in core housing need, compared to 32% of those who live in rented accommodations (see Table 9). Among seniors without disabilities, 6% living in owner-occupied dwellings live in core housing need, compared to 27% of those in rented dwellings.

Special Features for Access and Egress and Special Features within the Home

About 76% of seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing need indicate that they do not use nor require any special features to assist them with their daily activities. Of the remaining 24% (51,700 seniors) who use or require special features, 79% have all the features they need, 14% have none of the features they need and 7% have some features but need others (see Table 10).

Table 8 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and geographic location, 2001
  Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 217,500 15.30% 213,700 10.50%
Urban 190,200 16.60% 192,700 11.60%
Rural 27,300 9.80% 21,000 5.60%
Table 9 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and tenure, 2001
  Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 217,500 15.30% 213,700 10.50%
Owned by a member of the family 89,100 8.80% 91,400 5.80%
Rented 128,400 31.60% 122,300 27.00%
Table 10 — Use of, and need for, special features by persons aged 65 years and older with disabilities living in a household in core housing need, 2001
Use of, or need for, special features Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need with a mobility/ agility disability
(#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Total that use or need special features 51,700 100.00%
Use some special features and do not need any others 40,700 78.70%
Use some special features and need others 3,800 7.40%
Need some special features and have none 7,100 13.70%

Among the 10,900 seniors with disabilities who live in a household in core housing need that have unmet needs for special features, 54% report an unmet need for grab bars or a bath lift in the bathroom, 26% need a ramp or street level entrance, and 26% require automatic or easy to open doors (see Table 11).

Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Persons Aged 65 Years and Older with Disabilities Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Age and Gender

Among the senior population living in a household in core housing need, females make up 73% of those with disabilities and 70% of those without disabilities (derived from Table 12). Male seniors with disabilities who are living in a household in core housing need are generally much younger than their female counterparts: 54% are aged 65 to 74 years, compared to only 37% of females (see Table 12).

Table 11 — Number and percent of persons aged 65 years and older with disabilities living in a household in core housing need with unmet needs for special features, by type of feature, 2001
Unmet need for special features Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need with a mobility/ agility disability
(#) (%)
* Number suppressed because of sample size.
Components add up to more than 100% since some individuals have more than one unmet need
Source: 2001 PALS
Total needing additional features
10,900 100.00%
Ramps or street level entrances
2,800 25.70%
Automatic or easy to open doors (includes lever handles)
2,800 25.70%
Widened doorways or hallways
* *
Elevator or lift device 2,400 22.00%
Visual alarms or audio warning devices
* *
Grab bars or a bath lift (in the bathroom)
5,900 54.10%
Lowered counters in the kitchen * *
Table 12 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status, sex and age group, 2001
Sex Age group Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
(#) (%) (#) (%)
* Number suppressed because of sample size.
Source: 2001 PALS
Both sexes 65 years and older 217,500 100.00% 213,700 100.00%
65 to 74 89,700 41.20% 125,300 58.60%
75 to 84 92,700 42.60% 74,700 35.00%
85 and older 35,000 16.10% 13,700 6.40%
Males 65 years and older 58,100 100.00% 64,600 100.00%
65 to 74 31,200 53.70% 44,000 68.10%
75 to 84 22,600 38.90% * *
85 and older 4,200 7.20% * *
Females 65 years and older 159,400 100.00% 149,100 100.00%
65 to 74 58,500 36.70% 81,300 54.50%
75 to 84 70,100 44.00% * *
85 and older 30,800 19.30% * *

Living Arrangements

65% of seniors with disabilities living in core housing need
live alone, compared to 67% of seniors without disabilities
(see Table 13). For both seniors with and without disabilities,
21% live in families without children.

Table 13 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and living arrangements, 2001
Living arrangements Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
All types of living arrangements 217,500 100.00% 213,700 100.00%
Living alone 141,400 65.00% 143,400 67.10%
Non family person, living with others 12,600 5.80% 10,500 4.90%
Lone parent family 12,500 5.70% 9,600 4.50%
Family without children 45,700 21.00% 44,700 20.90%
Family with children 5,400 2.50% 5,300 2.50%

Immigrant Status

Seniors with disabilities who are living in a household in core housing need are more likely to have immigrated to Canada (36%) than their peers without disabilities (33%) (see Table 14).

Table 14 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and immigrant status
Immigrant status Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 217,500 100.00% 213,700 100.00%
Non immigrant 139,000 63.90% 143,400 67.10%
Immigrant 78,500 36.10% 70,300 32.90%

Within the senior population with disabilities who are living in a household in core housing need, the proportion who are immigrants varies with age: 34% of seniors aged 65 to 74 years, 39% of those 75 to 84 years and 35% of those 85 years and older are immigrants. Among seniors without disabilities who are living in a household in core housing need, the proportion who are immigrants decreases with age: 39% for seniors aged 65 to 74 years 32% for seniors aged 75 to 84 years and 23% for seniors aged 85 years and older.

Household Income

For the purpose of this analysis, the pre-tax household income of Canadian households with at least one person aged 65 years and older were assessed and divided into five equally sized income groups or quintiles ranging from low-income to high-income.

High Income: $64,434 or more
Upper Income: $40,736 - $64,433
Middle Income: $28,082 - $40,735
Moderate Income: $19,983 - $28,081
Low Income: Less than $19,983

Regardless of disability status, the majority of seniors living in core housing need have relatively low incomes: 67% of seniors with disabilities are in households in the lowest income quintile (among those containing seniors), compared to 71% of seniors without disabilities (see text box and Table 15).

The percentage of seniors living in core housing need where the household income is in the lowest quintile increases with age regardless of disability status. About 64% of seniors with disabilities aged 65 to 74 years who are living in a household in core housing need report a household income in the lowest quintile, compared to 83% of such seniors aged 85 years and older. For seniors without disabilities living in a household in core housing need, 66% of those 65-74 and 88% of those 85 years and older report a household income in the lowest quintile.

Table 15 — Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need, by disability status and household income quintile, 2001
Household income - Quintiles Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need
with disabilities without disabilities
  (#) (%) (#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 217,500 100.00% 213,700 100.00%
High, Upper, Middle
($28,082 or more)
16,800 7.70% 14,100 6.60%
Moderate
($19,983 - $28,081)
56,000 25.80% 48,900 22.90%
Low (less than $19,983) 144,700 66.50% 150,600 70.50%

Health Status

About 52% of seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing need consider their general health to be good or very good (see Table 16).

Table 16 — Persons aged 65 years and older with disabilities living in a household in core housing need, by type of disability and general health status, 2001
General Health status (self-assessed) Persons aged 65 years and older living in a household in core housing need with a mobility/ agility disability
(#) (%)
Source: 2001 PALS
Canada total 217,500 100.00%
Excellent 8,400 3.80%
Very good 44,300 20.40%
Good 68,000 31.30%
Fair 62,800 28.90%
Poor 24,700 11.40%
Not stated, refusal or don't know 9,300 4.20%

Self reported health improves with age among seniors with disabilities who are living in a household in core housing need. While about 46% of seniors aged 65 to 74 years rate their general health as good or very good, this proportion increases to 52% for seniors 75 and 64% for seniors aged 85 years and older.

Summary of Findings

General Characteristics of Seniors Aged 65 Years and Older with Disabilities

Geography

  • 41% of Canadians aged 65 years and older report some level of disability, with the lowest rate in Quebec (29%) and the highest in Nova Scotia (50%).

Age and Gender

  • The rate of disability increases with age and is higher for females than for males across senior age groups (65 to 74 years, 75 to 84 years and 85 years and older).
  • The average age of seniors with disabilities is 77 years for females and 75 for males.

Living Arrangements

  • 32% of seniors with disabilities live alone.
  • The probability of living alone as a senior with disabilities increases with age.

Nature of Disabilities

  • The two most common types of disability reported by seniors are mobility (78%) and agility (72%).
  • The number of disabilities reported by seniors typically increases with age.

Severity of Disability

  • 42% of seniors aged 65 years and older with disabilities are classified as having a severe or very severe level of disability.
  • Severity of disability generally increases with age.

Housing Characteristics of Seniors with Disabilities Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Geography

  • 15% of seniors with disabilities live in a household in core housing need. This proportion varies considerably among the provinces, with the highest (18%) reported in Ontario and the lowest (8%) reported in Saskatchewan.
  • 17% of seniors with disabilities living in urban areas are living in core housing need; the corresponding proportion for rural areas is 10%.

Tenure

  • 32% of seniors with disabilities who live in rented accommodation live in a household in core housing need, compared to 9% of those who live in a dwelling owned by a family member.

Need for Special Features for Access and Egress and Special Features within the Home

  • Of the 51,700 seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing who require special features, e.g., to enter or leave their residence, 21% do not have the features they need. The most common unmet need is for grab bars or a bath lift in the bathroom.

Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Seniors with Disabilities Living in a Household in Core Housing Need

Age and Gender

  • Females account for 73% of seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing need.
  • 54% of male seniors with disabilities living in a household in core housing need are aged 65 to 74 years and 8% are aged 85 years and older; among analogous females, 37% are aged 65 to 74 years and 19% are aged 85 years and older.

Living Arrangements

  • 65% of seniors with disabilities who live in a household in core housing need live alone.
  • The probability of seniors living alone in a household in core housing need increases with age.

Immigrant Status

  • 36% of seniors with disabilities who live in a household in core housing need are immigrants to Canada.

Household Income

  • About 67% of seniors with disabilities who live in a household in core housing need are in the lowest household income quintile among those containing seniors (i.e., had a household before-tax income of less than $19,983).

Health Status

  • 52% of seniors with disabilities who live in a household in core housing need report a health status of good or very good.

Acknowledgements

CMHC provides funding for housing content on the Census of Canada and on Statistics Canada surveys. Statistics Canada information is used with the permission of Statistics Canada. Users are forbidden to copy and redisseminate data for commercial purposes, either in an original or modified form, without the express permission of Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation and, where applicable, Statistics Canada. More information on Statistics Canada data can be obtained from its Regional Offices, at http://www.statcan.gc.ca, or at 1-800-263-1136.

CMHC Project Manager: Janet Kreda

Housing Research at CMHC

Under Part IX of the National Housing Act, the Government of Canada provides funds to CMHC to conduct research into the social, economic and technical aspects of housing and related fields, and to undertake the publishing and distribution of the results of this research. This fact sheet is one of a series intended to inform you of the nature and scope of CMHC's research.

1 2001 Census: Collective Dwellings (96F0030X2001004)

2 People who answer "Yes" to one of the questions on general limitations and "No" to the specific disability-type questions are classified as having "nature of disability unknown."

3 Refers to all private households. People living in collective dwellings (see Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Dictionary, Cat. No. 92-378-XIE, pages 190-193) are excluded by definition.

4 According to the NOS, enough bedrooms means one bedroom for each cohabitation adult couple; unattached household member 18 years of age and over; same-sex pair of children under age 18; and additional boy or girl in the family, unless there are two opposite-sex siblings under 5 years of age, in which case they are expected to share a bedroom. A household of one individual can occupy a bachelor unit (i.e., a unit with no bedroom).

5Shelter costs include the following:

  • For renters, rent and payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services; and
  • For owners, mortgage payments (principal and interest), property taxes, and any condominium fees, along with payments for electricity, fuel, water and other municipal services. Costs associated with maintenance and repairs are not considered part of shelter costs.

Income data collected by the 2001 Census refer to the calendar year preceding the Census, while shelter cost data give expenses for the current year.

6 A lower rate in Quebec has been observed in all of the disability surveys conducted by Statistics Canada.

Canada

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